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After receiving all necessary medical information from patients, our partnered doctors prepare patient-specific treatment plans. These plans are then analized by Bilyana HealthCare to create tailor made packages with alternative price options for patients to choose from.

The patient is welcomed at the airport by a Bilyana HealthCare representative. If the patient desires, flights can also be organized through Bilyana HealthCare. Hotel accommodation is organized with the patient beforehand during the treatment planning phase. The Bilyana HealthCare representative will accompany patients from the airport to the arranged hotel. Depending on the patients treatment schedule and approval by their physicians, an additional touristic tour program can be organized by Bilyana HealthCare.

Treatments are carried out in internationally accredited hosiptals with top doctors in their fields. Transportation for the patients to the hospital is arranged by Bilyana HealthCare on the day of treatment. A Bilyana HealthCare representative accompanies patients to all treatments and are available 24/7 so patients have no communication issues.

Once all treatments are completed, Bilyana HealthCare assists patients during discharge from the hospital.  Post-treatment details received from the health institutions will be conveyed to the patients. 

Patients will be taken to the airport by the Bilyana HealthCare representative. After returning to their home countries, patients can contact Bilyana HealthCare regarding any questions they may have and also provide a health status. If any follow-up or secondary treatments are required, the planning of that visit can organised. 

Anyone who has completed their age of 18 and their physical development can have a hair transplant.

Hair transplantation is a surgical procedure and should only be performed by experienced physicians with the support of medical staff specialized in the relevant field.

Hair transplantation prices may vary from person to person depending on the hair transplantation method and technique used and the size of the person’s baldness zone.

There are new advances and developments in hair transplantation every day which increased the success rate in hair transplantation to 90 % - 95 %.

Today with modern techniques like DHI, hair transplant is a very safe and minimalistic procedure and can be finished in a few hours with lifetime permanent results. It is important that the procedure is performed by trained and experienced doctors and strict protocols such as pre-screening and medical tests are followed in order to choose the right patient for hair transplant.

For a painless and more comfortable experience and better results, local anesthesia is applied to the scalp.

DHI hair transplant is one of the most appropriate procedures to get natural looking and healthy hair. Anyone who is suitable for hair transplant operations in general can also be suitable for DHI hair transplant. To be suitable for the hair transplant process, you need to have sufficient healthy hair in the scalp which can be transplanted to the area that needs hair and you need to have the ability to grow hair in the bald area of the scalp.

DHI can be performed on women who suffer from permanent hair loss, provided that they have sufficient hair in the donor area. Most women prefer this technique because this technique has very natural results.

The transplanted hair will fall out in the first 3 month after the hair transplantation. Then the new hair that has been transplanted begins to grow from the roots. Natural appearance is regained after approximately 1 year.

The duration of DHI hair transplantation varies depending on the patient’s hair density. Usually a single session takes about 6 hours (examination and controls are not included)

There are no scars on the scalp in most DHI hair transplantation applications. However, some people’s scalp may be thick and the DHI hair transplantation pens can create small scratches on the scalp, which can be treated with additional treatment.

In some people DHI hair transplantation may not be effective in the first application. There is no harm in applying DHI technique for the second time for these individuals. However, there should be at least 12 month between both DHI hair transplantation procedures.

The donor area heals usually in 7 days. In the first 3 days after the transplantation scabbing will form over the transplant area. Afterwards patient will start with the hair washing. The scabs will fall off, as a result of twice daily hair washing and in 5 – 6 days and the healing process is complete.

While there may be differences from person to person, in general, the effects of DHI hair transplantation are visible at the end of one month in most patients. This period can extend to up to 6 month.

The healing time DHI hair transplantation is directly related to the patient. Most patients show improvement between 12 months and 15 months on average. If all care and controls are done, DHI hair transplantation can improve in 10 months.

In order to have the best DHI hair transplantation results, the patient must meet the conditions determined by the physician and shouldn’t have lost more than half of his hair. At least 2000 to 2500 grafts should be obtained from the hair follicles. He shouldn’t undergo substance treatment. If these conditions are not met, the DHI hair transplantation surgery might not give the desired results.

The answer to this question may vary depending on the person who will receive the beard transplantation, the areas with missing beard and the desired shape of the beard. An approximate number can be given after the doctor examination.

Beard transplantation can be described as a painless procedure, because the area to be transplanted is anesthetized before the procedure. The patient feels minor pressure during the administration of anesthesia only. Our clinic has managed to minimize the pain by using very few needles with the latest pressure anesthesia technique. The anesthesia does not have any risks to the patient because the anesthetic procedure is performed only locally. For sure the patient’s pain threshold is important at this point as well.

Even though it varies from person to person, this procedure takes between 2 and 5 hours.

Your eyebrows may be slightly swollen immediately after the eyebrow transplant procedure. Small bruises may occur. You can use cooling to reduce swelling. In general, both swelling and discolouration decrease rapidly within hours or days after the eyebrow transplantation. Afterwards it is no longer visible that you have undergone an operation. The procedure you’ve had is permanent and you do not need to have it done again throughout your life.

The treatment time of eyebrow transplantation is usually 1 to 2 hours. This depends on the number of hair follicles to be transplanted. The more hair is transplanted, the longer the time will be for the process to be carried out.

A few days after the eyebrows are transplanted they begin to grow. Shock shedding is normal for the first 3 month.

Eyebrow transplantation is definitely a treatment method that should be performed by an experienced specialist. The most troublesome issue which might be experienced after eyebrow transplantation is the slight swelling and pain of the eyebrow area.

The success rate of female hair transplantation is always very high. This doesn’t mean that you can see the results as soon as you leave the clinic. It is normal to experience hair loss about 3 to 4 weeks after the procedure. Usually new hair growth is visible after 3 month. Gradually your head becomes fuller and your hair strands begin to grow stronger. The final results can be seen after 9 to 12 months after the hair transplant.

Women hair transplantation prices depend on the degree of baldness, the quality of your hair in the donor area and the intensity you want to achieve. Therefore, clear price information before the pre-transplant examination is impossible.

If the hair transplantation is performed by an experienced and reliable specialist, it will usually give the expected results. But the structure of every woman’s hair follicle is different and it is not predictable how they will react to hair transplantation. In some cases, patients cause damage to the hair because they don’t treat the hair follicles gently after the hair transplantation procedure. To increase the success rate it is important to pay attention to the doctors’ recommendation.

The more balding you have, the larger the area to be treated with the graft, the more grafts are needed the higher the costs for the hair transplantation. The number of grafts needed is important. After the examination the hair transplantation prices can be determined.

People who have balding in the front-line section of the hair, the crown area and partial hair loss that occurs at different parts of your head can benefit from unshaven hair transplantation technique.

On average the unshaven hair transplantation process is completed between 5 and 8 hours.

Usually, when hair transplantation is on the agenda, it is expected that the area where the hair will be transplanted is shaved before the operation. This is not the case in unshaven hair transplantation.

Hip replacement is a treatment option applied after osteoarthritis (arthrosis), dysplasia (congenital deformity), congenital hip dislocation, femoral head AVN (avascular necrosis-bone death) and fractures. Total hip prosthesis can be used in cases where osteoarthritis, tears and fractures in the hip cannot be treated by methods such as exercise, physical therapy, injection, and arthroscopy. Hip prostheses made of cobalt, chrome or titanium can also be made with cemented hip prosthesis and no-cement hip prosthesis types.

What is Total Hip Replacement?

Total hip replacement is a treatment method applied in severe bone damage when exercise, physical therapy and drug therapy are not effective. It is generally applied to patients over 55 – 60 years of age. In the treatment of elderly patients, cemented hip prosthesis is preferred according to the preference of your doctor and the condition of the patient. Hip treatments, which could only be done with cemented hip prosthesis in the past, can also be easily performed with no-cement prosthesis today. The metal and plastic parts used are supported by ceramic parts with high durability. All these innovations in hip replacement have helped the treatment last longer and have minimized the risk of dislocation of the prosthesis. At the same time, post-operative restrictions have decreased thanks to these innovations and the quality of life of patients using hip replacement has increased.

When Can you Start Walking After Hip Replacement Surgery?

Hip replacement surgery is an operation that takes approximately 1,5-2 hours. This period may vary from person to person due to conditions such as the type of osteoarthritis, shortness, dislocation grade and previous surgery. After the operation, the patient has a hospitalization and care period of 2-3 days. The day after the surgery, the patient starts walking with the support of a walker and a person and gradually increases his walking capacity.

What is the best lying position after hip replacement?

After hip replacement surgery, it is not recommended to pull the legs towards to themselves, turn them inward and/or open the legs in a way that forces the bones. For this reason, the appropriate sleeping position for the patient is to lie down on his back and have a pillow between his/her legs. After the 1st day of the surgery, the patient can lie down on the non-surgical side with a pillow between his/her legs.

Post Hip Replacement Surgery Precautions

In order to get the best results from total hip replacement surgery, it is necessary to ensure that the prosthesis is fully fixed to the tissues. Prosthetic components should be placed in their original rotations or close to the original. Incorrect and inappropriate movements made immediately after the operation may cause the prosthesis to dislodge. In order to minimize this risk, the patient should avoid actions that will raise the legs more than the specified angle. The use of a squat toilet is not permitted. Because in order to protect the prosthesis, it is essential that the patient does not sit on low places and does not take a squatting position. It is necessary to follow this recommendation throughout life.

After the operation, the patient is required to; 

  • Not cross legs for at least 6 weeks
  • Be careful while bending, squatting and sitting
  • Not lean forward too much when sitting and standing
  • Not raise the knees above the hips

As long as the patient pays attention to these rules, he/she can use the prosthesis for many years without any problems. Subject to the doctors approval, the patient can start driving after 6 weeks. The drivers seat should be positioned high and it should not squeeze the legs. 

Complications After Total Hip Replacement Surgery

An issue to be considered after total hip replacement is anesthesia. Total hip replacement surgery is performed by numbing the patient from the waist down. There is little to no risk. However, there is a risk of clot formation due to decreased walking and restriction of movements. The best way to avoid this is to use the medications your doctor prescribes, wear embolism stockings, exercise that won strain the hips and walk regularly. The patient can do sports such as swimming and walking 6 weeks after the surgery.

Another risk in total hip replacement surgery is infection. This is a risk with any surgery and can be reduced to zero with careful care. 

Hip Replacement Prices

Total hip replacement prices may vary depending on the material used. Cemented and no-cement hip prosthesis prices are different. You can contact us for more detailed information about total hip replacement.

In the arthroscopy technique imaging and treatment can be performed with the help of millimetric cameras inserted through a small incision. Hip arthroscopy, which is a difficult procedure due to the deep location of the hip bone, is a highly advanced method today.

What is Hip Arthroscopy?

Arthroscopy is a closed surgery method used in the diagnosis and treatment of joint and cartilage tissue problems. With the arthroscopy method, patients can stand up in a much shorter time compared to open surgery. In addition, since the healthy tissues in the region are not damaged during the operation, surgical scars are not formed. In open surgeries, approximately 10-15 cm incisions should be made to intervene in a large area, especially the hip. Thanks to the advantages it provides, hip arthroscopy, which is one of the most preferred orthopedic surgical methods today, is used in the solution of many hip problems today.

Which Disorders Can Be Treated With Hip Arthroscopy?

With the development of arthroscopy, closed operations began to replace open operations in the field of surgical orthopedics. However, hip arthroscopy has been the slowest progressing arthroscopy technique to date. Because the hip bone is located deeper in the body and is thicker made the treatment of the hip more complicated. Today, thanks to the developing technology, hip arthroscopy has also progressed and can be used in the treatment of almost all kinds of ailments.

The most preferred conditions for hip arthroscopy:

  • Diagnosis and treatment of unexplained groin and hip pain
  • Diagnosis and treatment of pain that is known to originate from the hip bone but of unknown cause.
  • Removal of free parts, cartilage tissue and joints within the hip joint
  • Impingement syndrome called femoro-cetabular. (Hip arthroscopy is mostly used in the treatment of this disease. The procedure is done by filing the joints and parts that cause compression.)
  • Micro fracture and cartilage transplants 

What are the Complications of Hip Arthroscopy?

Hip arthroscopy, like any surgery, is a procedure that requires expertise. However, we can say that arthroscopy applications to the hip area require a little more attention. The fact that the operation area is a difficult area requires the attention and dexterity of the specialist. As long as it's done right, it shouldn't cause any problems. If not taken care of, it can lead to some complications.

The most common complications of hip arthroscopy: 

  • Requirement of a second surgical procedure as a result of incorrect intervention
  • Temporary loss of sensation in the leg
  • Accumulation of the injected fluid in the wrong place during the procedure
  • Dislocation of the hip

These are temporary complications that usually have a solution. However, it causes the patient to be afraid and more tired during the diagnosis and treatment process.

Recovery Process After Hip Arthroscopy

The recovery process after hip arthroscopy can vary from person to person. In young patients, the recovery process usually takes place in a short period of 1 month. But for our elderly patients, it may take longer for the body to recover. You can walk with helpers and crutches, etc., after the hip arthroscopy. Approximately 2 – 4 weeks of rest is required for the patient to fully return to his daily life.

Hip dysplasia, also known as hip developmental deficiency, is a condition that, if left untreated, can cause severe arthritis of the tissues in the hip area. It may be noticed later than hip dislocation. Early diagnosis is of great importance in the treatment process. The earlier the hip dysplacia is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment and the greater the patient's quality of life.

What is Hip Dysplasia?

In a healthy person, the head of the femur, which we know as the thigh bone, is covered by the socket (acetabulum) in the pelvis. If the acetabulum area is not deep enough, the head of the femur cannot fully close and the load on the hip bone becomes unbalanced. In this case, calcification and wear can be seen in the joints exposed to heavy loads. This condition is called "hip dysplasia" in orthopedics, that is, hip developmental delay.

How Is Hip Dysplasia Diagnosed?

Hip dysplasia is not a condition with early symptoms like with hip dislocation. In rare cases, if the developmental delay is very advanced, it may manifest itself as the child begins to walk. In cases where it is not noticed or the treatment is insufficient, arthritis increases with advancing age and may manifest as pain. It is a disease that can usually be diagnosed with simple x-ray examinations. However, advanced imaging techniques such as CT (computerized tomography) or MRI can be used to plan treatment and understand the degree of hip growth deficiency.

When Should Treatment Be Started in Hip Dysplasia?

Hip growth retardation can be treated at any age. More effective results can be obtained as cartilage and tissues continue to develop during childhood. However, it is not a requirement that the treatment be done at a young age. Some of our patients reach their 30s without feeling any pain or suffering. As long as the right treatment method is used, our patients in every age group can get effective results. Treatment can be started as soon as the diagnosis of hip dysplasia is made. The earlier the treatment starts, the more effective the results will be.

How Is Hip Dysplasia Treated?

With the detailed examinations made by the doctor, the treatment process in hip dysplasia is determined. If calcification due to developmental delay has not progressed too far, hip osteotomy can be performed. Hip dysplasia can be treated by performing a total hip prosthesis when the hip dysplasia is noticed late and the cartilage tissue starts to disappear.

Hip Dysplasia 

Hip Dysplasia is a disease that can be diagnosed and treated. It is important to consult a doctor who will make the right decision at all stages and who has completed his expertise on joint and cartilage disorders.

Congenital hip dislocation is now known as "developmental hip deficiency". Cases of hip dislocation used to be treated with congenital abnormalities in the past. However, this situation has changed with the progress of medical studies and new findings being obtained every day. So, how is developmental hip deficiency determined? How is the diagnosis and treatment process? We will answer these questions, which worry many parents about congenital hip dislocation, in this article.

What Causes Congenital Hip Dislocation?

The condition we know as congenital hip dislocation is actually caused by the incomplete insertion of the "femur" bone in the hip joint into its socket, namely the acetabulum. In the normal hip joint, the femoral bone is fully seated in the acetabulum region. This region is expected to completely wrap the femur by covering it. The bone, which cannot fully settle in the acetabulum for various reasons, develops outside the region and causes orthopedic problems. Congenital hip dislocation, which can lead to serious disability if not diagnosed early, is a disease that can be prevented with the right treatment method. It can usually be noticed in childhood. This situation reveals once again the importance of regular examinations during pregnancy and childbirth. If detected early, congenital hip dislocation can be corrected without the need for surgical intervention.

What are the Symptoms of Developmental Hip Dislocation?

Unlike hip developmental deficiency, hip dislocation is a disease that can be diagnosed from an early age. The deformation caused by hip dislocation can be seen visually. However, since it is a disorder that can occur during development, it may not be noticed immediately in newborn babies. Most common symptoms of hip dislocation are:

  • Length difference in legs
  • Staggering to the right and left, which we call duck walking
  • Less movement and flexibility in one leg
  • The folds in the skin of the thigh or buttocks may appear uneven 
  • Introverted feet

How is Developmental Hip Dislocation Detected?  

If the baby has a congenital hip dislocation, this can be noticed immediately during routine check-ups after birth. The doctor checks whether the joints are healthy by moving the baby's legs. With this method, known as the "Barlow test", hip dislocation can be detected easily. Sometimes it can be difficult to make a definitive diagnosis because the cartilage of babies has not settled yet. If the baby is included in the risky group, ultrasound imaging should be performed at 6-month intervals.

If hip dislocation occurs during development, gait disturbances and complaints of pain will be typical symptoms of the disease.

How Is Congenital Hip Dislocation Treated?

The age at which the disease is detected is decisive during the treatment process. Since bone development continues during infancy and childhood, the joints are not fully formed. We consider this an advantage in the treatment of developmental hip dislocation. Even bandage applications in this period can seriously prevent dislocation.

  • Treatment is started with the help of special bandages in newborn babies. If adequate results are not obtained, surgical intervention may be required in later ages.
  • Bandages are the first treatment method preferred in infants between 1 and 6 months of age. In cases where the bandages are not effective or insufficient, plaster treatment can be started. In babies aged 6 to 12 months, direct surgery may be preferred for hip dislocation. After the operation, the treatment can be supported with a bandage so that the tissues can heal quickly.
  • Surgery is the most effective procedure preferred in all cases after 1 year of age. Depending on the degree of hip dislocation, arthroscopic surgery can be performed.

Congenital hip dislocation treatment is very effective as long as it is performed carefully and correctly. Bandages used in infancy may cause delay in walking.

Congenital Hip Dislocation Treatment

Hip dislocation, which is one of the most common problems we encounter in the field of orthopedics and traumatology, can cause disability at an early age, intense arthritis and premature aging of the bones if not treated. Therefore, hip dislocation is a discomfort that should not be taken lightly.

Today, arthroscopy, which has replaced open surgeries, is used in the treatment of joint and cartilage tissues in many parts of the body. One of these areas is the shoulder. With shoulder arthroscopy, which we can call "closed shoulder surgery", many tear and injury problems can be fixed. Arthroscopy surgery, which is completed in a shorter time compared to open shoulder surgery and has a shorter recovery time, is a solution to many shoulder problems from dislocation to tissue ruptures.

What is Shoulder Arthroscopy?

Shoulder arthroscopy is the removal of damage in the shoulder area with closed surgery methods used in the field of orthopedic surgery. It covers the diagnosis and treatment procedures performed with a millimetric, high image quality camera sent into the shoulder area through a small hole or incision. Thanks to the image reflected on the screen from the camera sent to the tissues, the damage in the area is detected. If the course of the operation is suitable for the treatment, immediate treatment can be done. Arthroscopy, one of the most beneficial developments in the medical world, has significantly reduced the high infection risk of open surgeries today. At the same time, it made the operation practical and made the doctor and the patient more comfortable. Shoulder arthroscopy varies depending on the procedures performed during the operation and why the operation was performed. Each ailment has a different treatment method, which affects the methods used during the procedure.

What are the Advantages of Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery?

In open surgical operations, deep incisions are made to reach the injured area. This can cause damage to the healthy tissue in the area and surgical scars. Only two holes are made during shoulder arthroscopy. Therefore, there is no surgical scar and healthy tissues in the area are preserved.

Diagnosis and treatment are very easy as intra-articular structures are seen very closely and magnified during arthroscopy. In addition, physical therapy and rehabilitation of the patient is both fast and easy. In arthroscopic surgery, only the injured area is intervened. Other muscles and tissues are not damaged during the procedure. This shortens the recovery time considerably.

Why Is Shoulder Arthroscopy Performed?

The shoulder is one of the most active parts of the body. Therefore, it is also very vulnerable to damage. With shoulder arthroscopy, compressions and torn tissues that restrict movement can be easily treated.

The most common injuries requiring shoulder arthroscopy are:

  • Recurrent shoulder dislocations
  • Biceps and tendon tears
  • Rotator-Cuff syndrome known as shoulder impingement
  • Arthritis of the collarbone and other bones in the shoulder region
  • Intra-articular ruptures and injuries

Shoulder arthroscopy is an effective and easy method in treatment and can also be used for diagnosis. It facilitates the diagnosis to a great extent, especially in cases of unexplained pain and rupture, although it is known to originate from the shoulder.

Shoulder muscle tears are one of the most common shoulder problems. The fact, that the arm is a very mobile structure and most of our daily movements are done with the help of the arms, increases the risk of damage that may occur in this area. Shoulder muscle tears occur when the muscle group in the shoulder region called “rotator” is strained. If left untreated, pain increases due to continued use of the arm and can negatively affect daily life. In rotator muscle tears, different treatment methods can be followed by examining the degree of damage and the general characteristics of the patient.

Where Are the Rotator Muscles?

Knowing the anatomy of the shoulder joint and where the rotator muscles are, can help you better understand the treatment process. The shoulder joint is consists of three bones called the humerus (arm), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). It is the muscle tissue that allows the movement of the shoulder to be flexible and the bones to move. These three bones that make up the shoulder joint are surrounded by muscles and tendons that we call the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff consists of 4 main muscles and allows the arm to move freely.

What is Shoulder Muscle Tear?

Shoulder muscle tears can be examined in 2 different groups according to the cause and type of orthopedically tearing.

What Causes Shoulder Muscle Tear?

Acute Shoulder Muscle Tear: Shoulder muscle tear may occur as a result of sudden movements, heavy blows, accident and impact. It is called an acute tear because it occurs suddenly.Shoulder Muscle Tear as a Result of Degenerative Changes: It is caused by deformities in muscle and bone tissue over time. In particular, excessive movement of the joint due to sports activities, decrease in blood flow over time and growth in the bones can cause chronic muscle tears. It is caused by deformities that occur in the muscle and bone tissue of the shoulder over time. Excessive strain on the shoulder, especially in sports equipment, may occur as a result of decreased blood flow over time, and changes in bone and joint tissue that come with age.

How many Types of Muscle Tears can be Diagnosed?

While classifying rotator muscle tears, we also pay attention to the type of tear. Partial (partial) rotator tear refers to the incomplete separation of tendons or muscles. Partial tears are easier to treat because there is no complete separation in the cuff tissues. If the tendons are completely separated and the soft tissue is divided into two parts, we can talk about a complete rotator tear.

Who Can Be More Likely Be Affected by Muscle Tears?

Damage to the shoulder muscle can happen to anyone, from any age group. However, we can say that some people are in the high-risk group. Shoulder muscle rupture is more common in people who work mainly with physical strength or those who engage in sports activities. At the same time, since the joints are deformed with age, shoulder muscle rupture may occur more quickly in patients over 40 years of age.

What are the Symptoms of Shoulder Muscle Tear?

Shoulder muscle rupture is characterized by pain. It manifests itself with a burning pain that progresses towards the upper side of the arm during the movement of the arm. Pain increases as movement increases. Continuous movement of the arm despite the tear may cause the problem to grow and daily movements may become impossible. Shoulder muscle rupture can be diagnosed by X-ray, MRI and other imaging methods.

How Is Shoulder Muscle Tear Treated?

The treatment method to be followed in the rupture of the shoulder muscle depends on the extent of the damage. In acute and mild cases, resting, using a shoulder strap, physical therapy and steroid injection can give effective results. But in moderate to severe cases, the best solution is surgery. Surgery may be required if shoulder pain persists for more than 6 months, the tear affects a large area, daily activities have become impossible and the pain is such that it wakes you up at night. 

Shoulder Muscle Tear Treatment

Shoulder muscle tears, if left untreated, can grow and become a more fundamental problem. In order to prevent this situation, the pain felt in the shoulder should not be taken lightly and should be shown to a specialist orthopedist as soon as possible.

Frozen shoulder syndrome, also known as "Adhesive capsulitis", is a disease characterized by pain and limitation of shoulder movements. It usually occurs in women over the age of 40. It is a disease that can be treated without the need for surgery. Although it is known to occur in the muscles and joints surrounding the shoulders, the actual cause is not known exactly.

What is Frozen Shoulder Syndrome?

Frozen shoulder syndrome is a discomfort that starts with pain and restricts shoulder movements. It progresses in three phases: fire, freezing and thawing. These processes are controlled by the treatments applied under the supervision of a doctor. Every patient's daily routine, amount of movement and physical characteristics are different. Therefore, the duration of treatment may vary from person to person.

What Causes Frozen Shoulder Syndrome?

Frozen shoulder syndrome occurs as a result of the deterioration of the functions of the structures surrounding the shoulder joint. Medical findings show that diabetes is the most important risk factor in the development of frozen shoulder. However, thyroid disorders, Parkinson's disease and previous stroke are also known to increase the risk of frozen shoulder.

What are the Stages of a Frozen Shoulder?

As we mentioned above, frozen shoulder manifests itself in 3 different stages.

  • Inflammation Stage (Stage 1): It is the stage in which frozen shoulder condition begins to manifest itself. At this stage, the pain in the shoulder is severe. The limitation of movement has not started to show its symptoms yet. The pain can be severe enough to wake you up at night. The transition from the 1st to the 2nd stage takes 1 – 3 months, although it varies from person to person.
  • Freezing Stage (Stage 2): It is the stage where the pain decreases and movement problems begin. The pain gradually decreases, but the limitation of movement may reach the level that prevents daily movements.
  • Dissolution Stage (3rd Stage): This is the stage seen between the 15th and 24th months following the first complaints. In this stage, pain and limitation of movement gradually decrease. Shoulder movements return and the pain may subside until only sudden movements are felt. After the dissolution phase, approximately one-fifth of the patients do not have any complaints. However, in this process, the disease can reach dimensions that reduce the quality of daily life. Therefore, it is important to go to the doctor without waiting for the dissolution phase. Treatment by the doctor can help end the disease before it even goes into the freezing stage. 

How Is Frozen Shoulder Treated?

Frozen shoulder treatment should be shaped according to the patient's complaints and patient history. Surgical operation is the last resort technique considered in the treatment of frozen shoulder. In rare cases, in the treatment of frozen shoulder cases that do not go away, the doctor may resort to treatment with arthroscopy or different surgical procedures.

The most commonly used treatment method in the treatment of frozen shoulder is generally anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy and rehabilitation procedures. In the 1st and 3rd stages, where there is no restriction of movement, physical therapy may accompany this.

Frozen Shoulder Treatment

Frozen shoulder treatment can turn into a very annoying condition, especially during the freezing phase where movement restriction is observed. Early diagnosis is of great importance in order to treat the disease before it progresses to the second stage.

Shoulder dislocations are among the most common dislocations we encounter. This is because the shoulder joint is one of the most mobile joints in the body. Shoulder dislocations can occur even during our daily movements. It usually occurs in the type of dislocation we call "protruding". It is a condition that negatively affects daily life due to the feeling of pain and restriction of movement it creates. Severe shoulder pain and inability to use the arm are the most important symptoms. Since it is not a self-healing disorder, you should consult a specialist doctor without wasting time in the suspected dislocation of the shoulder. If the patient tries to reposition the shoulder by himself, it may cause more severe injuries in the area and other connective tissues surrounding the shoulder may be damaged.

What is Shoulder Dislocation?

Shoulder dislocation occurs when the structures that make up the joint area slip out of their location. Consider the articular surface of the scapula as a flat plate. Normally, the upper end of the arm bone, which is fully located here, is separated from this plate in case of dislocation. This deformation of the shoulder joint causes severe pain. The patient may become unable to use his arm. It can occur as a result of sudden blows and falls, even during our daily movements. Therefore, it is an ailment that can happen to people of all ages. 

What Causes Shoulder Dislocation?

Shoulder dislocation occurs in what we usually call "protruding" type. Such dislocations occur when the shoulder is open to the side or turned outward. In addition, falls, placing heavy loads on the shoulders, sudden turns, heavy blows, accidents, and sportive activities can cause shoulder dislocation. A past history of shoulder dislocation also increases the risk of shoulder dislocation. Bankart lesion, known as "recurrent shoulder dislocation", is one of the biggest causes of permanent dislocation.

How Is Shoulder Dislocation Diagnosed?

The most important symptom of shoulder dislocation is severe pain. As soon as the dislocation occurs, pain begins to be felt in the shoulder. As the arm and shoulder move, the feeling of pain increases. At night, it may become impossible to sleep on your shoulder. Depending on the severity of the shoulder dislocation, movement restrictions may also be experienced. Shoulder dislocation symptoms can be listed as;

Severe pain

Difficulty using the arm

Deformities in the shoulder joint

All of these symptoms may not be seen together. However, the most obvious complaint that the patient feels from the moment of dislocation is severe pain. For this reason, it is essential to see a specialist doctor after a fall or accident.

How Are Shoulder Dislocations Treated?

Both surgical and non-surgical methods can be used in the treatment of shoulder dislocations. When a shoulder dislocation is detected, the first treatment we consider is usually rearrangement.

Rearrangement of the Dislocated Shoulder

This is the process of repositioning the tissues and bones in the dislocated joint area with appropriate intervention. There are different types of rearrangements depending on the type of shoulder dislocation. Patients may not be familiar with these special techniques. For this reason, it must be performed by a specialist so that the dislocation problem does not worsen.

Bandages, Splints and Wraps

It is a treatment method that we prefer in mild dislocation cases. Minor injuries that occur during daily activities, such as dressing, reaching high places, etc., can be treated with bandages, splints or dressings.


If the shoulder dislocation has reached serious dimensions and has made the movement of the arm impossible, then surgical methods can be used. Arthroscopy, which is one of the most frequently used methods in the field of orthopedics today, also provides effective treatment in shoulder dislocations.


Physical therapy is one of the indispensable treatment methods in dislocations and fractures. It can be sufficient for the treatment of some dislocations on its own, or it can be applied together with other treatment methods. Physical therapy after orthopedic surgeries can assist during the process where the bones and tissues can reach their ideal position.

Treatment of Shoulder Dislocations

In shoulder dislocations, each case is evaluated individually, because each patient’s bone structure, physical characteristic and lifestyle is different. Especially how much he/she moves in his/her daily life is decisive in the treatment of the patient. The treatment of shoulder dislocations is determined according to these variables.

The collarbone is the S-shaped bone that connects the shoulder joint to the rib cage. The bone that acts as a stabilizer by connecting the scapula to the rib cage; It is one of the indispensable parts for a healthy shoulder structure. Fractures and dislocations in the collarbone can cause severe pain as well as affect the posture and appearance of the person. Collarbone dislocation is also known as “acromioclavicular dislocation” in medicine and is among the orthopedic problems that can be easily treated. Mild dislocation complaints can be mostly treated with bandages and rest slings. In more severe cases where the bone and joint structure is impaired, surgical procedure can be applied.

What Causes Collarbone Dislocation?

Collarbone dislocation usually occurs due to heavy blows and traumas. Traffic accidents, blows to the chest area and sports injuries can cause collarbone dislocation. As a result of the blow to the area, the collarbone moves slightly upwards and becomes unable to fully perform its function. Slight movement of the collarbone is considered a minor injury. However, the complete rupture of the ligaments in this area is a dislocation of the collarbone that requires surgical treatment.

Who Can Easily Dislocate Their Collarbone?

Collarbone dislocation can occur in anyone. However, it is a more common condition in athletes as they are more likely to get hit on the chest. Clavicle dislocations are also common in traffic accidents because the patient is thrown forward. Collarbone dislocation is a disease that reduces the quality of life of the person with its pain when left untreated. At the same time, if it is not treated, it may progress further and cause severe arthritis in the area. Therefore, it is a disease that should be treated as soon as it is diagnosed.

How Is Collarbone Dislocation Treated?

Compared to other joint injuries, collarbone dislocations are joint injuries with a high healing rate. In many patients, no surgical procedure is required during the treatment process. Therefore, patients with collarbone dislocation are more fortunate in continuing their daily lives.If a dislocation of the collarbone does not cause serious damage to the tissues, it can be easily treated if only the bone has moved slightly upwards. After the diagnosis is made, the collarbone is brought to its ideal position with bandages, plaster and rest tapes. It is expected to be re-fixed in this region and settle into its natural position by itself. If the patient is young, the time of bones fusion will be short and healing will take place within months. However, if the tissues in the region are damaged as a result of severe trauma and the collarbone is completely displaced, surgical procedure can be applied. In athletes, surgical procedure can be given priority in order not to disrupt the sports life. Collarbone dislocations are generally treated with arthroscopy. The damaged structure in the area is tied to metal hangers and the bones are brought closer together with the appropriate process.

Although shoulder prostheses are less frequently performed, they are similar to knee and hip prostheses. The main idea is based on the logic of replacing the damaged articular surfaces with artificial surfaces. In modern prostheses, the main structures are titanium, the rubbing surfaces are composed of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy and polyethylene.

Reasons for Shoulder Replacement;

Shoulder arthritis – This condition develops either with intact contact of the articular surfaces or with semi-dislocation of the shoulder joint (rotator cuff arthropathy) due to an untreated tear of the chronic rotator cuff. It is very important to separate these two causes before prosthesis construction. As explained below, completely different prostheses are used in these two cases.

Shoulder head fractures – Although it was applied in the past, even in comminuted fractures of the arm bone (humerus) fractures that do not concern the articular surface, it is now the only option in fractures in which the shoulder joint surface is damaged. It is also a good option for non-fusion fractures.

Shoulder head avascular necrosis – Especially seen after chemotherapy and cortisone use, the joint surface at the top of the humerus collapses and shoulder movements are painful.

Shoulder tumors

When Should A Shoulder Replacement Be Performed?

If prosthesis is required due to fracture and tumor, it is classified as emergency surgery. Especially since fractures requiring prosthesis are at advanced ages preoperative consultations, examinations, and transfer of the patient are usually required. In such cases, waiting for 10 days is not a problem. If it is waited longer, the risk of limitation in shoulder movements increases.In shoulder arthritis and avascular necrosis, the patient should decide the time of surgery, not the doctor. The only reason for the operation is pain and limitation of movement, which impairs the standard of living. If the patient wants to manage with the problem in his shoulder without decreasing the comfort of life, insistence is completely unnecessary. Especially since avascular necrosis is seen in young patients, it would be reasonable to wait as long as possible.

It is very important to evaluate the treatment options by calculating that the life of the shoulder prosthesis is around 20 years. But the patient does not need to suffer because his age is young. Prostheses that loosen over time can be successfully revised in good hands.

Shoulder Prosthesis Types

As with knee and hip prostheses, cemented and non-cement options are also available for shoulder prostheses. However, in certain situations, completely different choice of prosthesis is required. If a mistake is made in choosing prosthesis, serious problems will arise in both the short and long term.

Standard Anatomical Prostheses; they are prostheses designed in accordance with the anatomy of the shoulder. Due to its compatibility with the anatomical structure, it is the best option in terms of both life and function. These prostheses are especially preferred for non-deformed arthritis and fractures in the shoulder joint. In fractures, it can also be made as a partial prosthesis without changing the glenoid part of the shoulder joint.

Reverse shoulder prostheses; its design is made in such a way that the round head of the shoulder is in the socket and the flat head is in the humerus head. It is preferred in chronic rotator cuff tears, calcifications caused by shifting of the shoulder joint, some paralysis and tumors. Although it has disadvantages such as quick loosening and more difficult replacement, it is the only option when necessary.

Surface Coating prostheses; only the rounded part of the shoulder head is changed. It is especially preferred in young patients with avascular necrosis. Although it has a short life, it is very easy to replace. Thus, it provides a comfortable process for the patients for 40 years as if a single prosthesis was made.

Who Should Have Shoulder Prosthesis?

Shoulder prosthesis should be done only in experienced hands due to less frequent use and technical difficulties. The experience of your orthopedist in open and arthroscopic surgeries of the shoulder will directly affect the success of the operation. Adapting the rotator sheath to the prosthesis, especially in prostheses made for fractures, requires serious experience.

Shoulder Prosthesis Results

  • 95-98% of patients can use their arms at elbow level without pain in prostheses made in good hands. Writing, most of the kitchen work, toilet and hygienic maintenance is trouble-free.
  • 80-90% of patients can lift their arms up to shoulder level and use them painlessly. This level of use is sufficient for hair care. Patients can button their underwear and wear their jackets comfortably.
  • 5% of patients have painless but insufficient shoulder movements. In this case, patients can eat their meals and use the computer. However, they often need the help of the other arm for other tasks.

There are 2% of unsuccessful results where the patient is still in pain.

Post-Shoulder Replacement Surgery Process

Until the wound heals, patients use an arm sling for 10 days during the day. A night arm sling is recommended for 4 weeks. In fractures, the arm sling period can be extended up to 6 weeks. However, all patients immediately start arm swinging exercises, can wash their face and use a computer.

Passive arm movements are started from the 10th day on. Active movements are started in the 3rd week. While passive movements are allowed in fractures, active movements are allowed once the fracture is healed. In fact, performing this process by experienced physiotherapists ensures both less pain and better functional outcome. In order to fully evaluate the result, patients should wait until the end of the 6th month.

What are the Risks of Shoulder Prosthesis?

Infection is the most important risk as in all prostheses. In case of an infection, an oral antibiotic may be sufficient, as well as the use of intensive intravenous antibiotics, washing and cleaning (debridement) of the wound, removal of the prosthesis and placing a new prosthesis may be required. Shoulder prosthesis dislocation rarely occurs in prostheses made in experienced hands. It is usually due to technical errors during surgery. It is common if the surgeon is inexperienced. In cases where this situation occurs more than once or the prosthesis remains dislocated, the prosthesis needs to be reconstructed. The limitation in shoulder movements may be due to technical errors in the surgery, or it may be due to the patient's non-compliance with the postoperative process. Especially in prostheses made in advanced ages after fracture, both the reluctance of the patients and the painful rehabilitation of the patients adversely affect the compliance of the patients. In the constraints not allowed by technical errors, the prosthesis needs to be changed. If there is no technical error, a satisfactory result can be obtained by persistent physical therapy, if it is not enough, by force under anesthesia or by loosening the joint capsule with arthroscopy.

If the painful shoulder is not due to infection, it may be due to technical problems or the psychological structure of the patient. The cause could not be found in 20% of the patients with pain. If the cause is known, appropriate treatment, if not known, pain treatment, if it is not sufficient, shoulder arthroscopy may be needed to investigate the cause and finally prosthesis revision may be required. 

Knee arthroscopy is an imaging and treatment and surgery method that solves problems in the knee region. Open knee surgeries can take the patient away from their daily life and keep them away from their work. It is an arduous process for both the doctor and the patient. Arthroscopy provides an easy treatment opportunity even in serious knee disorders due to the short duration of the procedure and recovery time. Arthroscopy, which is also used during cartilage and meniscus transplants, is today an innovation that makes open knee surgeries forgotten in the medical world.

What Does Arthroscopy Mean?

In the field of arthroscopy, orthopedics and traumatology, it represents a closed surgical procedure. The main purpose of the procedure is to visualize and treat cartilage and joint tissues with the help of a small camera through a small incision. Imaging with arthroscopy can be performed to detect undiagnosed joint and cartilage problems. If the diagnosis is made during the procedure, treatment can also be done. Except of some rare cases, the patients are anesthetized from the waist down and they feel nothing during the treatment. Arthroscopy can be performed in many parts of the body. It is frequently applied in the knee area.

Why is Knee Arthroscopy Performed?

Since it is a very easy method, arthroscopy has replaced open surgeries today. This treatment method, which is the solution to many joint and cartilage disorders, can be used to eliminate many problems in the knee.

Diseases and ailments of knee where arthroscopy is used:

Torn ligament treatments

Cartilage Repair

Cartilage shaving

Treatment of inflammatory intra-articular fluids

Repair of strained or damaged ligaments

Removal and treatment of intra-articular parts

How Long Does Arthroscopy Surgery Take?

Since it is performed with the closed method and semi-anesthesia, the procedure takes less time than open knee surgery. Depending on the size of the process, it takes between 30 minutes and 2 hours. If the treatment to be performed in arthroscopy is detailed and challenging, this period may be a little longer.

When Does Walking Start After Knee Arthroscopy?

With armpit crutches or assistive apparatus it is possible to stand up immediately after knee arthroscopy.

Recovery After Knee Arthroscopy

Mild swelling may occur after knee arthroscopy is performed. It may be necessary to support the leg and apply cold compresses to reduce this swelling. Regular dressing may be required for fine lines in the incisions after knee arthroscopy. Stitches are removed about 10-15 days after the operation. It may take 1 – 1,5 months for the patient to fully return to their daily routines.

Cruciate ligament tears are one of the most common knee problems. When cruciate ligament injuries are not treated, they pave the way for arthritis. Depending on the extent of the injury, the cruciate ligaments can be treated either non-surgically or surgically. The development of the arthroscopy technique provides an easy treatment for cruciate ligament treatments today. When reinforced with physical therapy, cruciate ligament surgery is especially important for the career of athletes. It provides a great deal of fixing the damage in the knee.

What is a Cruciate Ligament?

The cruciate ligaments are X-shaped ligaments that connect the bones in the knee joint and allow the knee to move smoothly. When the cruciate ligaments are damaged, the person may not stabilize the knee despite standing. These ligaments, which enable the knees to move in a healthy way, are also one of the important structures for healthy joint and cartilage tissue. With its rupture, other structures in the knee (meniscus, cartilage) can be damaged.

What Causes Cruciate Ligament Tear?

Cruciate ligament injuries can occur as a result of a sudden turn, stop, or change of direction. In addition, a direct blow to the knee can cause cruciate ligament damage. Anyone can experience a cruciate ligament injury when we consider the causes of its occurrence. However, athletes are in the high risk group. Cruciate ligament injuries are common especially in people who play sports such as football, basketball, volleyball and tennis. Injuries can also be seen in cruciate ligament ruptures during sports, due to the selection of wrong sports equipment or the ground on which sports are performed.

What Are the Symptoms of Cruciate Ligament Injury?

The biggest symptom of cruciate ligament injuries is pain. This pain can sometimes be so intense that it obscures the diagnosis. If the physical examination does not give a result, advanced imaging techniques such as MRI can be used.

Pain in cruciate ligament ruptures; Complaints such as numbness in the knee, limitation of movement, swelling, problems in going up and down stairs, a feeling of instability or “giving way” with weight bearing, difficulty in walking may accompany.

The condition that causes the rupture of the cruciate ligament can sometimes cause damage to other tissues. Meniscus tear is the most common condition we encounter with cruciate ligament tear. If knee locking is also seen with these complaints, meniscus tear may be suspected. In this case, the appropriate treatment method that will eliminate both damages should be determined.

How Does the Cruciate Ligament Treatment Work?

The treatment of cruciate ligament is a process that should be decided by evaluating the persons individual characteristics. If the person is doing sports, there is a more serious trauma and urgent surgical intervention may be required in terms of the person's career. Apart from that, age, previous cruciate ligament treatments, or whether there is any other deformity present, the degree of damage influence which cruciate ligament treatment is decided upon. 

Non-Surgical Cruciate Ligament Treatment

Depending on the injury of the cruciate ligament, non-surgical cruciate ligament treatment methods can also be preferred. Rest, bandage, cold compress and physical therapy are the non-surgical treatment methods used in the treatment of cruciate ligaments.

Cruciate Ligament Treatment with Arthroscopic Surgery

Today, one of the most effective methods used in the treatment of cruciate ligaments is arthroscopy. Two small incisions made just below the kneecap and torn ligaments detected with the help of high-resolution cameras can be effectively treated. It is not usually possible to sew cruciate ligaments. For this reason, restructuring with a new tendon taken from the person's own tissues is a healthier choice. In order for the new tissues to become completely healthy, athletes may be asked to take a break from active sports for about 8 months after the operation. A good rehabilitation process is required after the surgery.

Cruciate Ligament Treatment

Cruciate ligament injuries are a condition that people of all ages can experience in any period of their life. When treated, complaints are greatly reduced. Cruciate ligament treatment is performed according to the condition of the damaged area and the needs of the person.

The meniscus, which plays a protective and supportive role in the knees, is a must for healthy joints. It causes mobility barriers in older individuals. With the understanding of its importance, the treatment methods developed for meniscus injuries have also diversified. 

What is Meniscus?

Meniscus are C-shaped cartilage tissues located in the inner and outer regions of both knees. The meniscus, located between the thigh (femur) and leg (tibia) bones, which are the main bones in the knee, acts as a reinforcer in this region. They provide the protection of the resistance of the knees against heavy loads and act as a cushion in the joints.

What is Meniscus Tear?

Meniscus tear is a condition in which the meniscus is damaged and cannot function.

What Causes Meniscus Tear?

The main cause of meniscus tear is excessive pressure and trauma in the knees. Meniscus tear in young people occurs due to sports or accident. In the elderly, even daily movements such as a light walk, bending over, climbing stairs can cause meniscus tears. With age, the meniscus wears down and becomes more sensitive. This increases the tendency for meniscus tearing. Meniscus tear is one of the most common injuries, especially in sports that require sudden maneuvers such as football and basketball. When the meniscus is not fully treated, it is a disorder that prevents sports.

Does Meniscus Tear Heal By Itself?

Since the meniscus is in a cartilage structure, it is a structure that does not regenerate and heal on its own. For this reason, a meniscus tear must be treated surgically.

How is a Meniscus Tear Treated?

The oldest method used in the treatment of meniscal tears is the surgical method. Cold compresses and physical therapy may be recommended for mild meniscal tears. However, in more severe cases, treatment is required under the supervision of a specialist. Surgical procedures, which were seen as the most effective treatment in the past, have been replaced by new meniscus treatments today. Arthroscopy and meniscus transplantation are the most effective methods of meniscus treatment today.

Can You Do Sports Again After Meniscus Treatment?

It is possible to do sports again after meniscus treatment. As long as you follow your doctor's advice and directions after meniscus treatment, this treatment is not an obstacle to sports.

Cartilages, although small, are important structures that enable the joints to carry loads. By acting as a cushion between the joints, they help the bones carry heavy loads and move painlessly. Damage to the cartilages can cause orthopedic disorders known as "calcification". Today, cartilage treatment can be performed with different techniques such as micro-fracture, mosaic-plasty and cartilage transplantation. Cartilage treatment in the elderly is almost impossible. However, the possibility of recovery of cartilage in young people continues. In particular, new applications such as cartilage transplantation make a difference with their high success rate.

What Causes Cartilage Injury/Tear?

The weakening of the bone structure over the years and heavy blows can damage the cartilage tissue and cause restriction of movements. This situation, which occurs due to the weakening of the body in elderly individuals, can turn into a major problem in young people. This applies especially to young people involved in sports. Cartilage injuries can turn into a big problem and cause athletes to take a break from their careers. The last point reached in this regard is cartilage transplantation. Cartilage injuries are common orthopedic problems with age. In young people, cartilage tissue can be damaged as a result of heavy blows and traumas. Heavy traumas can occur during traffic accidents, falls and collisions, and sports such as football and basketball. In young athletes, cartilage injuries are most common in the knee region. Overloading the knee during running and falls predispose to cartilage damage.

How Is Cartilage Injury Diagnosed?

When the cartilage is damaged, a feeling of stinging and rupture occurs in the joint area. Sudden pain in the joint may continue at the same intensity for a while. The gradual decrease of pain does not indicate that the joint is healing on its own. In order for cartilage injuries to heal, it is absolutely necessary to apply the right treatment under the control of a specialist. Surgery is generally used in the treatment of cartilage.

Pain experienced in severe traumas may not always be cartilage damage. Conditions such as tissue crushing and dislocation also cause similar orthopedic pain. Therefore, it is your specialist who will make the final decision in case of cartilage injury. Cartilage injuries can be diagnosed with radiological imaging methods. 

How Is Cartilage Injury Treated?

How the damage occurs is a decisive factor in the treatment of cartilage. Treatment may become more difficult if other tissues in the area are damaged in heavy blows and traumas caused by an accident. Very small cartilage damage can only be followed and left to heal if it does not cause any complaints. However, surgery is necessary for major injuries. If the patient is very young, techniques such as filling the tissues with hyaluronic acid or physical therapy may be sufficient. Cartilage tissue is very difficult to regenerate in adults. For that reason surgical operation is definitely needed.

How Is Cartilage Surgery Performed?

Different techniques can be used for cartilage surgery. Micro-fracture method with stem cells and mosaic-plasty method are some of them. These treatments aim to regenerate cartilage tissues and completely treat the damage. In the Mosaic-plasty technique, some parts taken from the non-load-bearing area of the joint are added to the load-bearing area and the joint area is strengthened.

What is Cartilage Transplantation?

One of the new procedures used in cartilage treatment is cartilage transplantation. In cartilage transplantation, it is essential to remove the damage by producing new cartilage with the tissues taken from the cartilage. Although cartilage transplantation is a new application, it shows 80-90% success in practice. These results provide new hopes in the field of orthopedics and increase the success rate in cartilage treatment.

Total knee replacement is the creation of an artificial joint by replacing the worn joint surfaces with special parts made of metal and polyethylene, designed for painless joint movement. Knee prosthesis, which was first applied in 1968, has been developed thanks to surgical techniques, materials used and advances in design, and has become a much more successful treatment method today.

Who is total knee replacement suitable for?

In patients who have severely restricted daily living activities such as walking and climbing stairs and who have advanced damage to the articular cartilage although treatment methods such as rest, medication, physical therapy methods, using a cane and intra-articular injections were applied and knee pain could not be controlled, total knee prosthesis is suitable. It is preferred that the patient is between the ages of 60-80, but in some special cases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteonecrosis, prosthesis can be made at an earlier age.

How is a total knee replacement performed?

After appropriate anesthesia, the knee joint is reached with an incision made in front of the knee. The eroded cartilage tissue on the contacting faces of the three bones that make up the joint (femur, tibia and patella) is cut out together with a thin layer of bone, then the prosthesis pieces selected in appropriate sizes are prepared by using a filler called bone cement (polymethyl methacrylate) aand attached to the bone surfaces. Thus, the joint faces are re-coated with parts made of metal and plastic. The operation takes between 1-2 hours. Epidural (placed from the waist) or intravenous pain pumps are often used for pain control after surgery. The next day, knee movements begin and patients can stand up with assistance. The patient is discharged (usually 15 days) when he/she can walk comfortably in the room and corridor. More than 90% of patients who undergo total knee replacement experience a significant reduction in knee pain and a significant improvement in performing activities of daily living such as walking/climbing stairs. Significant improvement of knee pain and independent walking is different for each patient, but it takes between 4 and 8 weeks. Running, jumping sports and heavy work after the prosthesis are not suitable for these patients and will shorten the life of the prosthesis. There is nothing wrong with driving a car. The curvature and deformities that existed in your leg before the surgery are also corrected during the surgery; this will extend the life of the prosthesis. However, especially in overweight patients, the range of motion is less. The average range of motion is around 115 degrees, so it is often not possible to squat down fully or perform prayer (Muslim) after the prosthesis. Although techniques and designs that increase knee range of motion have been applied in recent years, it may be inconvenient for patients to sit with their feet under them in terms of long-term survival of the prosthesis. The metal and plastic parts that make up the total knee prosthesis wear out over time due to the friction that occurs during movement. With the body's response to metal and plastic parts that are too small to be seen and caused by wear, the prostheses can be separated from the bone to which they are attached and loosen. The life of knee prostheses made using appropriate surgical techniques and modern prosthetic designs has now extended to 15-20 years. Loose prostheses can be removed with a second surgery and placed again in most patients, but the life of the second prosthesis is not as long as the first.


Serious complications after total knee replacement surgery occur at a very low rate. The most common problem is the formation of clots in the veins (deep vein thrombosis) due to the slowing of the blood flow in the leg. To prevent this, preventive treatment is applied with drugs that will dilute the blood after surgery. This treatment can be extended up to 20 days if necessary. Starting knee movements and walking in the early postoperative period and avoiding immobility will reduce this risk. After total knee replacement, infection, ie inflammation of the prosthesis, is seen between 0.1% and 2%. Infection in another part of the body (eg, in the urinary tract, teeth), diabetes and other chronic diseases can increase this risk. It is necessary to treat infections that may be in another part of the body before surgery. Preventive antibiotic treatment is given during the surgery and the risk of infection is reduced by taking special precautions during the surgery. If infection develops in the prosthesis, repetitive surgeries, removal of the prosthesis and repositioning after a certain period of time may be necessary.

In this application, where healthy cartilage and joint tissues are protected and only injured tissues are supported by prosthesis, the feeling of movement is more comfortable. It is thought that many patients who had a full knee replacement in the past can be treated with partial knee replacement today. For a more natural sense of movement after surgery, surgeons recommend partial knee replacement to eligible patients. So what are the advantages and disadvantages of partial knee replacement? How is partial knee replacement different from total knee replacement?

What is Partial Knee Replacement (Unicondylar)?

Partial knee replacement; It is also known as unicondylar, unicompartmental or partial prosthesis. The knee structure consists of three compartments. These are the inner and outer parts of the knee and the bones that make up the kneecap. In total knee prosthesis, prosthesis is placed in all parts of the knee. In partial knee prosthesis, the prosthesis is placed only on the damaged area of the knee. In general, joint and cartilage problems that occur in only one compartment can be eliminated with partial knee prosthesis. Prostheses made of metal and polyethylene cover the injured area of the knee and allow the leg to move freely. As a result of the treatment, pain and stinging sensations are also greatly reduced and daily movements become easier. It is a very important and life-saving treatment, especially for athletes.

Who Can Have Partial Knee Replacement?

Partial knee replacement can be performed to patients with knee tearing, abrasion and arthritis problems. It is generally preferred in knee injuries that do not respond to other orthopedic treatments such as injections and physical therapy, and that occur as a result of severe trauma. Partial knee prosthesis is preferred if the knee structure is suitable for deformations that occur in the knees with aging. However, partial knee replacement may not be applied to some patients due to the aspects that differ from total knee replacement. This is because this prosthesis eliminates problems in only one compartment. Although the partial effect allows the knee to move more naturally, this prosthesis may be insufficient in some severe cases. For this reason, the application of partial knee replacement must be decided by a specialist physician. Due to the side effects that may occur in overweight patients, it is more appropriate to perform partial knee prosthesis for weak and elderly individuals.

How Does Partial Knee Replacement Surgery Happen?

A partial knee replacement is surgically placed on the damaged area of the knee. Therefore, it is a procedure performed under general anesthesia. After the patient is put to sleep, the knee is opened and a prosthesis made of polyethylene and metal is placed on the damaged area. After the incisions are sutured, the surgery is completed. The process takes an average of 1 – 1.5 hours. The patient becomes able to stand up and take slow steps in the evening of the surgery. It may take up to 6 months for the knee to take its final form. This period may vary from person to person. In order to eliminate the side effects arising from inactivity, care should be taken to ensure that the patient moves regularly during the recovery period and does not disrupt his exercises. 

Can the Knee Wear Despite the Unicondylar Prosthesis?

Partial prosthesis is an effective treatment method that completely eliminates pain in the area where it is located. But as time passes, the tissues continue to wear out. For this reason, deformation may continue in other parts of the knee. 90% of our patients say that the quality of life has improved after the prosthesis and that the complaints have largely disappeared. As long as it is performed correctly, knee prostheses show their effect for a long time.

High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure performed to reduce deformation and deformities in the knee. It aims to eliminate the deformations caused by overloading the knees.Meniscus, cartilage and joint tissues damaged by trauma can also cause the knee to lose its ideal shape, become eroded and unable to bear weight. The high tibial osteotomy helps the knee regain its normal form in such cases.

In young patients, high tibial osteotomy surgery delays the need for prosthesis and ensures a more comfortable life for the patient.

High tibial osteotomy is usually performed on people younger than 65 years of age. It is a procedure that we prefer instead of prosthesis in athletes and those who experience cartilage deformation at a young age due to severe trauma. It is also applied to people who have deformities in their knees, which we call O or X legs.In order for a high tibial osteotomy to be performed, the damage must be on the inside of the knee. High tibial osteotomy is the first treatment that comes to mind in cases where the leg's load-bearing axis slides into the inner parts of the knee joint.

High tibial osteotomy surgery is performed with the open surgery method. The surgery begins with an incision made in the inner part of the tibia bone, close to the joints. The process is performed to ensure that the weight is spread over the entire knee area from the inner ligaments on which the weight is loaded. Spreading the weight over the entire joint area reduces the internal pressure and eliminates the factors that cause pain and suffering. After high tibial osteotomy surgery, the change in leg shape is immediately noticeable.

Advantages of high tibial osteotomy:

High tibial osteotomy can completely eliminate the need for prosthesis, especially in cases of mild deformation.

Since the patient's own joint structure is preserved, the cartilage and joint lifespan is long.

It is not a procedure that prevents knee prosthesis. If the procedure was performed at a young age, a new prosthesis may be needed in later ages. High tibial osteotomy treatment does not prevent prosthesis. However, after high tibial osteotomy, there is a period of 6 weeks to wait until bones fuse together.

Joints have special tissues and structures that aim to protect the knee area from excessive loads and pressures. The meniscus, cruciate ligaments and interarticular fluids allow the knee to move freely and be resistant to excessive load. The fluids in this area prevent excessive friction of the knee bones, the two largest bones of our body. Thus, it allows us to perform our daily activities such as sitting and standing, climbing stairs and walking. As the fluid in the knee joints decreases, even small movements become difficult; it starts to get painful. In this case, fluid supplementation to the knees and changes in lifestyle, which can cause arthritis, etc. helps delay joint problems. If you also feel pain and restriction of movement in your knees, the reason for this concern is a large clinical group called fluid reduction.

What is Joint Fluid (Synovial Fluid)?

Joint fluid, ie synovial fluid; It ensures that our knees can withstand our daily movements and do not wear out quickly. Joint fluid is found in everyone. However, over time, this fluid may decrease due to abrasions in the joint area and unhealthy lifestyle. When it is reduced, it cannot be renewed by the body. Therefore, synovial fluid supplementation may be required. When the synovial fluid begins to decrease, mild pain and limitation of movement begin to appear. When it is completely finished, it may become impossible to do even daily, simple movements.

What is the Condition Known as Joint Fluid Decrease?

The most important factor that causes the decrease of joint fluid is lifestyle. Excessive activity, intense sports history or sudden and wrong movements can lead to a decrease in joint fluid, even if we are not aware of it. The opposite is also possible. A completely sedentary lifestyle can also cause joint weakness and damage to the knee area. However, the person's diet, weight and age also cause a problem called decreased joint fluid. This condition usually occurs due to;

Excess weight

Sedentary lifestyle

Hyperactive lifestyle

Insufficient water consumption

Deficiency of other vitamins and minerals that feed bones, especially calcium

Diabetes and arthritis problems

How Is Joint Fluid Reduction Treated?

The only way to prevent fluid loss in the joints is the injection method. Other treatments reduce fluid loss by stopping wear. But it is not completely curative. Treatment methods applied in the reduction of fluid in the joint can be listed as;

Exercise and physical therapy

Nutritional changes and vitamin supplements

Weight loss

Joint fluid injection

Causes such as excessive movement or inactivity, obesity, calcium and vitamin D deficiency can cause abrasions in the joint area. Especially obesity is a factor that ages the bones quickly by increasing the load on the joints. Elimination of factors that trigger wear can help reduce complaints by slowing down fluid loss.

What is Fluid (Synovial Fluid) Supplement?

The only way to restore the decreased fluid in the joints is to supplement the area with artificial joint fluid by injection. The visco-elastic fluid containing sodium hyaluronate increases the lubricity in the joints and minimizes friction. However, today, procedures such as PRP, PRGT, Ortholine by taking the blood of the person are the most up-to-date and natural treatment methods..

Cartilage injuries are disorders that can be seen in different joints and negatively affect daily life. One of the most common areas of cartilage injuries, which manifest itself with severe pain and swelling, is the ankle. Because it shows similar symptoms with ankle sprain, it may not be immediately understood by the patient. For this reason, it is best to consult a specialist doctor as soon as possible if pain and swelling continue in the foot after a crash, fall or heavy blow. Today, problems in the ankle cartilage can be treated with easy surgical procedures.

What is Ankle Cartilage Injury?

Events such as overloading the ankles, wrong stepping, uneven distribution of weight between the feet and accidents can damage the cartilage tissue in the ankle. Damage to the cartilage tissue in this area causes severe pain and reduces the patient's quality of life. If the limitation of movement in the wrist is added to the complaints, the discomfort may reach a level that interferes with daily activities.

Diagnosis Process in Ankle Cartilage Injury

In ankle cartilage injuries, a physical examination is first performed by your doctor. The importance of radiological imaging methods in the definitive diagnosis is great. Although physical examination and patient history indicate that the cartilage tissue is damaged, radiological test results are used to understand the area and extent of the injury. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are one of the most used methods in the diagnosis of ankle cartilage injuries.

How Is An Ankle Cartilage Injury Treated?

Ankle cartilage injury can be treated with surgical and non-surgical methods. According to the results obtained from radiological imaging methods, the degree of damage to the ankle is determined. Accordingly, the treatment process is initiated in accordance with the patient's history. If the cartilage tissue is damaged and there is a slight injury, the cartilage tissue can be regenerated with bandages and fixation apparatus. However, in severe cases, surgery may be required. Ankle cartilage injuries are performed with arthroscopic, that is, closed surgery technique, and the healing process is much more comfortable.

Ankle Cartilage Treatment with Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is an operation that is used in many orthopedic ailments today and replaces open surgeries. During the procedure, a high-resolution and micro-sized camera called an arthroscope is used. This camera is sent to the subcutaneous tissues through a thin incision in the skin. Thus, both the problem in the tissues can be determined and treatment can be done. 

What are the Advantages of Ankle Cartilage Treatment with Arthroscopy?

In open surgeries, deep incisions are required to reach the damaged area. These incisions make the area open to infection after surgery. Arthroscopy, on the other hand, is a procedure performed with only one or two holes. Therefore, the risk of infection after the operation is less.

  • It is a reliable procedure that gives effective results in cartilage lesions.
  • The patients can return to their daily lifes more quickly compared to open surgery and there is no trace of surgery.

Physical therapy can be started in a short time after arthroscopy. The patient may begin activities that require movement, such as sports, more quickly. This improves the patient's quality of life and helps the joints heal more quickly.

What is the Recovery Time in Ankle Cartilage Treatment?

If ankle cartilage treatment was performed with arthroscopy, it is possible to return to daily life a few days after the procedure. Of course there will be some restrictions due to the operation. For example it is not recommended to drive, do active sports and put excessive load on the ankle between 4 and 6 weeks.

Cartilage tissue begins to heal completely after about 4 – 6 weeks. From the 6th month, the best results of the operation are observed. Pain in the joint almost disappears and active sports activities can be returned.

Ankle Cartilage Treatment

Ankle cartilage injury can be defined as a "sprain" by patients at first. Although the symptoms are similar to sprains, different techniques can be used in the treatment method. Therefore, the examination of an expert orthopedist is important in the diagnosis of ankle cartilage injuries.

Many movements we do in our daily routine can cause ankle sprains and, as a result, ankle ligament injuries. Although it is often seen in athletes, catching the foot on a hard object, falls, impacts, sudden movements and blows can cause ankle ligament injuries. It consists of the fibula, tibia, and talus bones. These bones are surrounded by ligaments that allow the ankle to move freely. When the ankle ligaments are injured, severe pain may occur in the ankle and the ankle may be locked and unable to move. This condition, which greatly affects the careers of athletes, can be treated today with both surgical and non-surgical methods.

What is Ankle Ligament Injury?

The joints in our body consist of bones and muscle-connective tissues that protect these bones. The ankle consists of three different bones that make up the joint and the ligaments that surround them. Heavy blows, traumas, staggers and unsteady steps damage the connective tissue around these bones. In ankle ligament injuries, depending on the degree of damage, walking may become completely impossible and the pain may reach dimensions that wake patients up from their sleeps. 

What Causes Ligament Injury in Ankle?

Ankle connective tissues are more exposed to blows, especially in people who play sports such as football and basketball. Striking the ankle during sports, staggering and sudden turns may cause damage to the connective tissues in this area. Ligament injuries, which are considered among athlete injuries, can also be seen in daily life. Since the ankle is one of our most mobile joints, it is susceptible to sudden load changes, staggering and sprains. Going up and down stairs, running, or even staggering when getting out of bed can damage the ligaments in the ankle. Ankle ligament injuries are usually caused by the inward rotation of the foot. The risk of developing ligament injuries is also higher in those who stand for long periods of time and those who do heavy physical work.

What are the Symptoms of Ligament Injury in the Ankle?

From the moment there is a ligament injury in the ankle, the muscles in this area give signals of injury with severe pain and tenderness. This pain can be severe enough to wake you from sleep in severe cases. Depending on the degree of injury, swelling, redness and a feeling of warmth in the joint may accompany the pain. Many orthopedic problems are manifested by pain and swelling. For this reason, a specialist examination is absolutely necessary to understand whether the problem is ligament rupture, sprain or cartilage damage. When a specialist is consulted on time, orthopedic problems can usually be treated with rehabilitation and rest. 

How is the Treatment of Ankle Ligament Injury?

The patient's condition determines the treatment process in ankle ligament injuries. Some cases may even go away on their own as they are quite mild. At home, ligament injuries from simple impacts and sprains usually go away with a few weeks of rest. During the rest period, the ankle can be wrapped with a bandage and cold compresses can be applied. The cold will help reduce swelling and reduce the feeling of pain. The patient may need more effective treatment in cases where the ankle ligament injury occurred due to sports, accident or falling. In this case, the ankle ligament can be treated with arthroscopy. The results obtained from this treatment performed with the closed surgery technique are quite effective. Patients can return to their daily lives, generally recovering completely after 4 to 6 weeks. Arthroscopy may be needed when the pain continues to worsen and the ankle can still not be moved after 1 week after the injury. It is recommended that you see a specialist physician for a definitive diagnosis and effective treatment.

Today, many problems in the field of orthopedics and traumatology can be treated with arthroscopic surgery. Arthroscopy, also known as the "closed surgery" technique, is an effective treatment method that can be applied to almost all joint areas of the body. During the procedure, where both the diagnosis and treatment of ankle problems are performed, only a few small incisions are made. For this reason, it is a much easier and risk-free procedure compared to the open surgery technique. Arthroscopy, which is much easier for the patient and the doctor, can be performed in the treatment of many problems from ankle sprain to synovitis clearance.

What is Ankle Arthroscopy?

Arthroscopy, known as the closed method in ankle surgeries, is a procedure performed with optical cameras called arthroscope. Micro-sized, high-resolution camera called arthroscope is sent to the joint area through thin incisions made on the ankle. This procedure helps to examine the problem in the joint area in detail and to make a definitive diagnosis. During the surgery, treatment can be done from the other thin incision made in the joint area. It is a practical and effective application as it is a process that allows diagnosis and treatment at the same time. Today, almost every operation in the field of orthopedics – apart from prosthesis placement – can be performed with the arthroscopy method.

What are the Advantages of Ankle Arthroscopy?

Undoubtedly, the biggest advantage of ankle arthroscopy is that the recovery and transition to physical therapy is much faster.It is necessary to be very careful about the risk of infection after open surgeries. Since the surgical incisions take longer to heal, the risk of infection is high. In arthroscopy, there are no deep incisions as in open surgery. For this reason, both the healing process is fast and the risk of infection is very low. In open surgeries, scars of deep incisions remain on the skin. Arthroscopy is a good solution for our patients who do not want to have open surgery due to aesthetic concerns. Since the procedure is performed through only two thin incisions, there is no trace of the operation.

Which Diseases Can Be Treated With Ankle Arthroscopy?

One of the advantages of arthroscopy is that it can be applied to almost all orthopedic problems. Open surgeries may be preferred in procedures such as prosthetics. However, apart from this, arthroscopy is the first choice of doctors in many ankle problems. 

What is the Recovery Process in Ankle Arthroscopy?

After ankle arthroscopy, the patient is discharged very fast. The patient can take short walks on the day of the surgery. Depending on the size and purpose of the applied process, it is desirable to transfer the load to the feet gradually. It is necessary to pay attention to walking and other movements for 1 week after the operation. Approximately 4-6 weeks after the procedure, the patient can return to his daily life completely. The most effective results of arthroscopy begin to be seen with the 6th month. In the vast majority of patients, the complaint of pain is reduced by 90%. Athletes can start active sports.

Are There Any Risks of Ankle Arthroscopy?

As with any surgical procedure, arthroscopy may also have risks arising from clots and anesthesia. Arthroscopy is usually performed with local anesthesia. However, in special cases, general anesthesia can also be applied. As long as the patient's history is listened correctly and appropriate anesthesia is applied, the risk of anesthesia is very low. Clot formation can be prevented by not neglecting the movement, simple exercises, medications recommended by your doctor, and embolism socks.

Hallux valgus, also known as deformity of the big toe, usually caused by genetic reasons, is a condition that can cause pain. At the same time, deformation and swelling in the toe, which are symptoms of hallux valgus, can also cause aesthetic concerns in patients. Hallux valgus is a discomfort that needs to be treated because of the discomfort it creates both physically and visually. Although non-surgical treatment methods are applied in the first stage, surgical procedure may be required in the later stages of the disease. It is not a very difficult operation. Patients can return to their daily life in a short time.

What is Hallux Valgus?

Hallux valgus is an orthopedic disorder known as deformity of the big toe. It manifests itself with the bony prominence seen next to the big toe when the foot is flat on the ground. If left untreated, this bone will continue to grow. In advanced levels of the discomfort, the big toe tilts to the side due to the pressure and foot deformity occurs. It is an inconvenience that causes discomfort both aesthetically and physically. As the disease progresses, bony spur may be evident even through shoes. As the bone grows, the shape of the foot deforms. The patient may feel bone pain even with the most comfortable shoes.

What Causes Hallux Valgus?

The causes of hallux valgus are still unknown. However, studies on this subject show that the biggest factor in the formation of the disorder is genetic codes.

Causes of hallux valgus other than heredity;

  • Choosing excessively narrow shoes or using high-heeled shoes all the time.
  •  Flat feet
  • Wide foot structure
  • Foot injuries such as fractures and dislocations
  • Obesity

How is Hallux Valgus Diagnosed?

Hallux valgus is a visual disorder that disrupts the aesthetic appearance. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose by observation. However, radiological imaging methods are also used to understand the level of the disease and to determine the correct treatment method. The degree of bone dislocation can be easily determined by the x-ray taken while the foot is flat on the ground. 

 What are Hallux Valgus Grades?

In hallux valgus, the treatment process is determined by the degree of the disease. If the discomfort is mild and bone growth is slow, the first choices in treatment are non-surgical methods such bandage, etc. The need for surgery increases as the disease progresses. Fixative materials, such as bandage and splint etc. begin to cause both pain and ineffectiveness to the patient.

Stages of hallux valgus condition: 

  • Light 15 to 20 degrees 
  • Medium between 21 and 39 degrees
  • Severe damage if more than 40 degrees

How is Hallux Valgus Treatment?

Splints and bandages are generally used in the treatment of non-surgical hallux valgus. The main goal is to give the foot its ideal shape by applying pressure to the bone dislocation next to the big toe. In addition, when diagnosed early, shoe change, insoles or special orthopedic supports may be recommended for the treatment of hallux valgus.

In severe cases of hallux valgus, the most effective solution is surgery. During the surgical procedure, it is aimed to return the foot to its normal shape by rasping the deforming bones. Radiological examinations are guiding in the surgical treatment of hallux valgus. Different treatment methods can be applied according to the appearance seen of the foot. The rasping technique does not give the expected effect in every patient.

About the Hallux Valgus Surgery 

Hallux valgus surgery is a procedure performed under anesthesia. Therefore, the patient does not feel anything during the surgery. Painkillers and antibiotics are prescribed for pain that may occur after the procedure. After hallux valgus surgery, the patients can walk using their heels. Body weight should be given to the bones slowly over time. This process can take up to 6 weeks. After an average of 6 months, our patients can return to their daily lives, drive and do light sports.

Hallux Valgus Treatment

Hallux valgus treatment can be done with different methods depending on the size of the damage. Therefore, each patient is treated individually.

The ankle joint consists of three different bones that make up it and the tissues surrounding them. Consisting of muscles and tendons, this tissue allows the joint to move in a healthy way. Among these tendons, the Achilles tendon is one of the most important tendons in the body. It is generally considered among the diseases of athletes because it can be easily damaged by running, jumping and sudden movements. Achilles tendon ruptures can occur in different ways depending on the moment they occur. The most common  Achilles tendon tears occur slightly above the “calcaneus” region, where the tendon attaches to the heel bone. The disease can become much more serious and surgical intervention may be required, if the Achilles tendon in this area is torn. In the treatment of Achilles tendon, the patient's lifestyle and muscle structure are of great importance. Non-surgical treatments, especially athletes, can prevent them from their daily life and career. For this reason, Achilles tendon treatment must be planned by a specialist orthopedist.

What Causes Achilles Tendon Injury?

Ankles are one of the most active areas in our body. Therefore, even daily movements can easily damage the ankle tissues. In addition, sudden movements, heavy impacts during exercises such as running and jumping can cause tears in the Achilles tendon. People who engage in sports with frequent exercise and sudden movements are more prone to Achilles tendon injury. For this reason, injuries to the Achilles tendon are also called sportsman's disease. When not treated properly, it can negatively affect the careers of many athletes or delay their success.

What Are the Symptoms of Achilles Rupture?

The most important symptom of Achilles rupture, as in many orthopedic diseases, is pain. Sudden pain that feels like something is stuck in the ankle is usually a sign of Achilles tendon rupture. Inability to rise on the toe, tenderness above the heel, and a feeling of instability or “giving way” with weight bearing on the heel are other signs of Achilles tendon rupture. 

How Is Achilles Tendon Tear Diagnosed?

For the diagnosis of Achilles tendon ruptures, it is absolutely necessary to see a specialist doctor. If it is detected while the tissues are still warm, it can be treated without the need for surgery. If the complaints are so great that they interfere with daily life, then the damage in the area must be monitored with radiological imaging methods. If the complaints are milder, palpation may be sufficient. At this point, we use a diagnostic method we call the Thompson test. In this control performed on the calf area of the patient, when the calf muscles are tightened, the movements of the ankle are monitored and the diagnosis of Achilles tendon injury can be made. 

 How Is Achilles Tendon Injury Treated?

Both surgical and non-surgical methods can be used in Achilles tendon injury treatment. The tendon can be reattached to the bone tissue with plaster, bandage and splint, if the patient sought help from the physician immediately after the accident that caused the rupture. Plaster treatment is a long-term treatment. It is necessary to wait for a while for the tendon to fully attach to the bone tissue. If the person is working or will be away from sports training for a long time, plaster treatment may interfere with daily routines.

Apart from this, surgical methods can also be preferred in the treatment of Achilles tendon. The appropriate treatment method is decided according to the degree of the tear in the Achilles tendon.

Heel spurs are a disorder that is usually seen between the ages of 40 and 50, and can occur from both inactivity and excessive and wrong movements. Excess weight is also known to damage the plantar fascia tissue in the foot. Heel spurs may occur as a result of excessive pressure on this tissue. Heel spurs usually present themselves as hard, bony protrusions in the heel area, although in some cases they may not show any symptoms. So why does heel spur occur and how is it treated? In this article, we will answer all questions about the treatment of heel spurs.

What is Heel Spur?

Heel spur is a disorder that falls into the field of orthopedics and traumatology. The main cause of heel spurs is inflammation. It occurs due to inflammation of the plantar fascia tissue that connects the heel bone to the toes. This inflammation causes calcium deposits between the heel bone and the arch of the foot. Calcium accumulated in the heel hardens over time and becomes bone-like. Many different methods are used in the treatment of heel spurs. As long as the right treatment method is performed, it is easy to treat.

What Are the Symptoms of Heel Spurs?

Heel spur symptoms may show similar symptoms with other orthopedic disorders in the first stage. The most common symptom of heel spurs, especially when standing up in the morning, is pain. This feeling of pain can also be seen when standing up after being inactive for a long time. When the foot moves, sharp pains also manifest themselves and may decrease as the movement continues. In advanced cases of heel spur, the disorder can be seen in the appearance of the heel along with pain. Ossified tissue and swelling are other signs of heel spurs. Heel spur symptoms are:

Heel swelling and tenderness

Feeling of warmth and heat increase around the area where the heel spur occurs

Tenderness and pain felt under the feet during running, jumping and walking

X-ray images are used for definitive diagnosis in heel spur complaints. First, the physician listens carefully to patient's clinic history. A physical examination is then performed. If the heel spur is manifested by swelling and ossified tissue, the doctor may make the first diagnosis during the physical examination. With the X-ray images, the suspicion becomes certain. In cases where the heel spur does not cause tissue changes in the heel area, x-rays are essential for a definitive diagnosis. 

Why Does Heel Spur Occur?

Although the cause of the formation of the heel spur has not been determined exactly, it has been determined that some conditions increase the risk factor as a result of the examinations made in the cases. Especially excess bodyweight and obesity are known to cause heel spurs. Excess weight can cause tissue damage by increasing the feeling of pressure on the ligaments in the feet and ankles. It is known that injuries to the Achilles tendon also increase the risk of heel spurs. Apart from these, other factors that can cause heel spurs are:

Using unhealthy shoes with a hard sole.

Sports activities on hard surfaces

Walking habits that may cause trauma

With advancing age, plantar fascia loses its flexibility and becomes easily damaged.

Flat feet

How Is Heel Spurs Treated?

In the treatment of heel spurs, different treatment methods can be preferred according to the degree of the problem and the discomfort it gives to the patient. Generally, non-surgical treatments are preferred. In rare cases, surgery may be preferred to clean the ossified tissue in the heel. The first treatment used in the treatment of heel spurs is rest. Heel spurs seen in athletes due to running and jumping can be removed with plenty of rest. Cold compresses can also be applied to speed up this process. Cold reduces the feeling of warmth and sensitivity in the area, making the pain less felt. If cold compresses and rest are insufficient, the doctor may apply one of the following treatments:

Splint and plaster

Suggestion of healthy sports shoes suitable for the person

Anti-inflammatory drugs

Steroid and prolotherapy injections

Injection of natural substances obtained from the person's own blood into the area with heel spurs (PRP)


There is no specific drug developed for the treatment of heel spurs. However, in this process, auxiliary drug treatments can be applied to reduce the rate of inflammation and reduce the feeling of pain and tenderness.

Heel Spur Treatment

Heel spur treatment is done in many centers. Since it is in the field of orthopedics and traumatology, it is important that the treatment of heel spurs is done by a doctor who is specialized in this field. ; The doctor's surgical knowledge, skills and experience should also be taken into account. If heel spur treatment is going to be performed with surgery, the surgeons’ knowledge, skills and experience are very important.

Flatfoot is called pes planus. Flat feet refers to the flat footing of the sole of the foot, completely touching the ground. In a normal foot structure, the foot has the ability to carry the weight of the body and distribute it evenly. Flatfoot is an abnormality related to the shape of the foot. Flat feet can cause uneven distribution of body weight and cause pain as a result of the load. Treatments recommended by orthopedists can help reduce the negative effects of flat feet and improve the patient's quality of life. In this article, we will talk about these techniques.

What Causes Flatfoot?

Flat feet is a disorder that can be seen in many parts of society and in different age groups, from children to the elderly. It can occur both due to the effect of heredity and orthopedic traumas. However, lifestyle is also known to cause flat feet. Having a family history of flat feet is also one of the factors that trigger the formation of flat feet. Acquired flat feet may occur other than congenital causes.

Causes of acquired flat feet are:

  • Previous foot trauma, sprains, dislocations and fractures
  • Weakening of the medial arch on the inside of the foot with aging
  • Arthritis of tissues and bones in the ankle
  • Excess bodyweight and obesity

What Are the Symptoms of Flat feet?

Flat feet is usually a condition that can be diagnosed by observation from the outside. Often the pain etc. does not give any indication. If there is a complaint of pain, the condition can be diagnosed by a specialist physician in a hospital or clinic. Doctors can also diagnose flat feet through observation. In addition, flat feet can be diagnosed with imaging methods such as x-ray, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR).

Pain from flat feet can be felt in the foot, ankle, and inner parts of the foot. In some people, these pains can reach knee joints, hips and even waist. 

 What are the Flat Feet Types?

Cases of flat feet can appear in different ways:

  • Flexible flat feet is the most common type of flat feet. When the foot hits the ground, its normally arched structure changes and the sole flattens completely. In such cases of flat feet, there is no deformation of the bone.
  • Hard flat feet is the condition in which the foot is not arched both in the grounded position and while standing still. This type of flat feet is caused by damage to the bone. If left untreated, the likelihood of causing pain and other complaints increases.
  • Flat feet caused by short Achilles tendon is generally a type of flat feet caused by genetic factors. It occurs when the Achilles tendon is short. This type of flatfoot can cause the heel to lift prematurely while running or walking. Although it does not cause major problems as a child, it can cause movement problems as the age progresses, especially in people who are involved in sports.
  • Flatfoot originating from the posterior tibial tendon is a type of flatfoot caused by tendon injury. It occurs when the tendon that connects the calf muscle to the inside of the ankle is injured.

How to Identify Flat feet?

If you suspect flat feet, you can check the shape of the soles of your feet in the mirror by keeping your feet firmly on the ground. If this image doesn't really mean anything to you, after wetting your feet, you can step on a piece of paper and check the resulting shape. You may suspect flat feet if the footprint of your foot appears completely on paper, without an arch.

What is Flatfoot Treatment?

Flat feet is a disease that can be treated with rest, custom insoles, special stretching exercises and physical therapy. In rare cases, surgery may be needed. At the same time, conditions such as excess bodyweight and obesity should be controlled to prevent the progression of flat feet.

Ingrown toenails are a common problem in the big toe. Ingrown toenail is a problem in the field of orthopedics and traumatology. It must be treated as it causes severe pain to the person. If ingrown toenails are not prevented, inflammation may occur in the area and swelling gradually increases. If it is caused by problems with the nail structure, the stinging may recur. Being aware of the precautions that can be taken against ingrown nails will reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease. If you are experiencing the problem of ingrown nails frequently, you can get information about what to do in case of ingrown nails by reading our article.

What is Ingrown Nail?

Ingrown nail is when the nail is stuck in the nail bed while it is growing and it causes pain with the pressure it makes in this area. It is a problem that is mostly seen in the big toe because the feet stay in the shoes for a long time during the day and the nail gets stuck as it grows. However, it can also occur in other toenails if not taken care of. It is a problem that can be treated with home remedies when intervened in a timely manner. But when it is too late for treatment, inflammation may begin. Swelling and pain increase with inflammation. In this case, it is absolutely necessary to consult an orthopedic specialist. Because it may be necessary to intervene with medical methods in a sterile environment on the sensitive area that is open to infection.

What are the Symptoms of Ingrown Nails?

Ingrown nails begin with tenderness in the area of the problem. This is followed by a feeling of warmth and pain. The area of the nail ingrown swells and there is an obvious redness around it. We can summarize the symptoms of ingrown toenails as follows:

  • Nail tenderness
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Burning sensation, increase in temperature in the area where nail is ingrown

If there is inflammation, inflammatory discharge can also be seen in this finger. If you have problems with wound healing such as diabetes etc., you should definitely consult a specialist doctor. 

What Causes Ingrown Nails?

Ingrown toenails can be caused by both external factors and physical structure. In some people, the nail structure is wide and the nail bed is narrow. This can cause ingrown nails. In order to prevent ingrown nails, it is necessary to avoid behaviors that are harmful to foot health. Behaviors that cause ingrown toenails other than physical predisposition:

  • Choosing tight shoes that compress the foot
  • Cutting nails too short
  • Pedicure which stresses the toenails 
  • Cutting the nails incorrectly (Most of the ingrown nails are caused by the incorrect cutting of the nails. Nails should be cut straight for foot health.)

Apart from these, injuries and traumas to the toes can also cause ingrown nails.

Who Can Get Ingrown Toenails?

Ingrown toenails can happen to anyone. It is a common ailment in babies. This is because babies' nails grow very quickly and their tissues are soft. Nail care should be done regularly to protect babies and children in terms of ingrown nails.

What can I do in Ingrown Toenails?

Undoubtedly, this is the first question that people with ingrown toenails ask when they notice the problem. Simple treatments at home can be a solution to ingrown nails. But for this it is important to act on time. If the ingrown nail gets deeper, it can cause inflammation. If an inflamed discharge is seen in the nail, it is necessary to consult an orthopedic specialist without wasting time.

Home remedies for ingrown toenails:

  • Washing with Warm Water: Warm water helps to reduce swelling in the area and relieve pain. It is recommended to have hot water feet bath three times a day, with an interval of twenty minutes. Antibacterial soap can also be added to the water to reduce the risk of infection in the stinging area.
  • Apple Cider Vinegar: One of the home remedies to cure ingrown toenails is apple cider vinegar. Although it has no proven, scientific effect, it is known that it is also good for ingrown toenails thanks to its antibacterial properties that renew the skin.
  • Changing Shoe and Sock Preferences: Ingrown toenails can occur when the shoes are too tight. If the toenail has started to sink, it is necessary to avoid extra pressure that will further sink it. For this reason, changing your shoes and socks is one of the methods that can prevent the progression of this problem.
  • Regular Care: Moisturizing the area is also important for the rapid healing of ingrown nails. Nails should not be cut until the stinging is gone. In order to take precautions before ingrown nails occur, you can cut your nails straight, without overgrowing, and take care of them regularly.

Poor posture affect people in many ways, from pain in the back, waist and neck region to mental health. These disorders, which increase gradually when untreated and negatively affect the quality of life, are evaluated within the scope of orthopedics and traumatology. The correct position of the skeleton during sitting, standing and sleeping for a healthy posture; head, neck and waist area need to be supported properly. Today, with the increase in desk jobs, posture disorders have also increased and have become a common problem for many people. In our article, we will discuss the causes of postural disorders, how we can treat poor posture, and the effects of correct posture on our health.

What are Posture Disorders?

Posture disorder is defined as a change in the normal anatomical and physiological curvatures of the spine, resulting in curvatures from the musculoskeletal system. Bending the spine to the side, protruding the hip forward or backward, and an increase in the waist pit are the most common posture disorders. As posture disorders progress, it can cause wear on the joints, strain on the muscles, and severe pain in the back and lumbar region. In addition to the physical effects it creates, posture disorders that negatively affect social and working life can also wear out the person mentally.

The most common posture disorders are:

Hunchback (Kyphosis)

Swayback (Hyperlordosis)

Neck Problems

Rounded shoulders 

Scoliosis (C or S-shaped curve of the skeleton)

Leg length inequality, also known as pelvic imbalance.

What Causes Posture Problems?

The type of posture disorder present in the patient may also reveal the cause of the posture disorder. Each posture disorder can occur for different reasons. However, when the physical condition and mental structure of patients with posture disorders are examined, some common points can be seen. In this context, we can list the causes of posture disorder as follows:

Accident injuries and falls can cause poor posture.

The body gets used to wrong sitting, lying and standing patterns in a short time. This can cause posture disorders.

Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle can also cause posture disorders. In this case, posture disorder can be easily eliminated with an appropriate exercise program.

It is a fact that everyone knows today that sitting or working in the same position for a long time causes posture problems. For this reason, it is necessary to provide the right working environment in terms of spinal health in the workplaces.

Rapid growth in childhood, sitting unsupported in the classroom, carrying heavy bags can also cause posture disorder.

Excess or Insufficient bodyweight can cause posture disorder. 

It is known that psychological disorders and visual disorders also have a negative effect on posture.

How to Have a Healthy Posture?

So how should a healthy posture be? Healthy posture is a posture in which the ears, shoulders, hips and wrists are aligned and the spine takes a straight position. While the person is standing, the shoulder should not lean forward, the hip should be slightly out, and there should not be excessive hollowing in the waist.Side lying position is generally recommended to maintain a healthy posture. In this position, the neck should be kept up with a supportive pillow and if possible, a soft pillow should be placed between the legs.One of the most difficult situations to maintain a healthy posture is sitting. Especially in the office environment, people working at the desk should take care of their spine health. It is important that the hips and the entire back touch the support part of the chair while sitting, and that the knees and hips are at a 90 degree angle. In order to maintain this position, it is recommended to bring the computer to eye level and adjust the desk height according to the health of the spine.

Posture Disorder Treatment 

Posture disorder treatment can yield effective results with early diagnosis and intervention. In cases where it is not treated, there is a possibility that postural errors can trigger each other. In severe cases, primarily physical therapy and exercise, surgical treatment of posture disorders is also available. You can contact us for effective exercise techniques applied in posture disorders, physical therapy applications and all your other problems related to orthopedics.

Scoliosis is the condition known as spinal curvature problem. It is usually observed as a right or left facing curvature of the spine. However, it can be seen in the rotation of the spine in its axis. It can be seen alone or together with kyphosis. In the treatment of scoliosis, the appropriate method is applied, taking into account the age of the patient, the type of curvature and the rate of progression. It is a disease that can be treated with personalized 3-dimensional scoliosis exercise (Schroth exercise), corset or surgical treatment. When diagnosed at an early age and according to the degree of curvature, it can be treated with exercise and corset. If the curvature is very advanced, the most effective treatment method is surgery.

What is Scoliosis?

Scoliosis; It is the bending of the spine to the right or left in varying degrees. If the curvature of the spine is above 10 degrees, it is a condition that must be treated. Scoliosis is diagnosed by specialist orthopedists through physical examination and other imaging methods. The curvature of the spine can be understood more easily when the patient is in a bent position. It is a congenital or acquired disorder. Idiopathic (unknown cause) scoliosis types are observed mostly in adults. Apart from this, conditions such as polio, cerebral palsy and muscle wasting are also known to cause scoliosis.

What are the Symptoms of Scoliosis?

When scoliosis progresses, it can manifest itself with a curvature similar to a posture disorder. It usually occurs during orthopedic examinations. In adults, it most commonly presents with pain. The most common symptoms of scoliosis:

  • Sideward bending of the spine and related posture disorders
  • One shoulder is different from the other shoulder
  • Asymmetrical position of the shoulders and hips
  • Pain in the neck, back and waist region
  • Shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle aches

How is Scoliosis Diagnosed?

Scoliosis is a problem in the field of orthopedics and traumatology. Therefore, the diagnosis of scoliosis is made by experienced and expert orthopedists. If the patient visits to the doctor with the suspicion of scoliosis, the patient's medical history is carefully listened to first. Genetic factors play a major role in the formation of scoliosis. For this reason, spine disorders in other members of the family are also evaluated. After this stage, a physical examination follows. If the doctor suspects the presence of scoliosis, he may order the results of X-ray, MRI and computed tomography. After evaluating all these data, a diagnosis of scoliosis can be made and appropriate scoliosis treatment is planned for the patient.

 What is Important in the Treatment of Scoliosis?

In the treatment of scoliosis, 3D scoliosis exercises, corset and surgical method are generally used. In order to get effective results from scoliosis treatment, the process must be planned correctly. When deciding on the method to be used in the treatment of scoliosis;

  • Patient's age
  • Bone and cartilage structure, bone age
  • Degree of scoliosis curvature
  • Formation of scoliosis
  • Gender
  • Rate of increase in scoliosis
  • The severity of complaints due to scoliosis is taken into account.

How Is Scoliosis Treated?

As we mentioned above, scoliosis treatment is performed with 3D scoliosis exercises, corset and surgical procedure. The most important determinant in the treatment of scoliosis is the degree of curvature and the age of the patient. Since bone development continues at young age and bone age is young, effective results are obtained from exercise and corset treatment. The degree of scoliosis according to the age of the patient also gives an idea about how quickly the disease progresses. For example, we can say that scoliosis progresses quite rapidly in a 10-year-old child with 35 degree scoliosis.

Corset Treatment in Scoliosis

According to the degree of curvature, exercise and corset treatment in scoliosis gives very successful results in childhood and adolescence. In adults, corset treatment is not preferred because both bone development is completed and it is difficult to use visually. For corset treatment in scoliosis the degree of scoliosis should be between 25 and 45 degrees and the bone age should be young.

Surgical Treatment in Scoliosis

If the curvature is higher than 45 degrees in scoliosis, surgical treatment can be performed. Today, more effective results are obtained from the surgical treatment of scoliosis, thanks to techniques (neuromonitorization) that can monitor spinal cord functions during surgery. During surgical procedures, the spine is fixed in a healthy posture by using medical screws and equipment compatible with the skin tissue.

Congenital scoliosis is a congenital “C” or “S” shaped curve in the spine. It is known as congenital scoliosis. It usually occurs during the 4 - 8 weeks of pregnancy, from complications that occur during the formation of the skeletal structure. It is the most common type of scoliosis after idiopathic scoliosis types. The most effective results in the treatment of congenital scoliosis are obtained with surgery. However, depending on the degree of curvature and the rate of progression, plaster and corset treatment may also be preferred. In this article, we will answer the questions about congenital scoliosis.

What is the Cause of Congenital Scoliosis?

The cause of congenital scoliosis may be genetic. Congenital scoliosis is more likely to occur in patients with a family history of congenital scoliosis.

Another cause of congenital scoliosis is the diseases experienced by the mother during pregnancy. It is estimated that congenital scoliosis develops between 4 and 8 weeks of pregnancy. Pregnancy-related diabetes, heart, liver and kidney problems can negatively affect the skeletal development of the baby. Therefore, it is important to regularly monitor the mother's health during pregnancy.

What are the Symptoms of Congenital Scoliosis?

The presence of congenital scoliosis in newborn babies can manifest itself in different ways. Symptoms often depend on the degree of curvature in the spine. If the course of scoliosis is mild, there may be no symptoms in infancy. However, as age progresses, deformities in the spine may become evident. You may suspect congenital scoliosis if you notice any of the following conditions in your baby:

  • Excessive hair growth on the back of the infant 
  • Asymmetrical skin folds in the back and waist region, unbalanced tissue collection in certain parts of the back
  • Skin color differences in the back and waist area
  •  Incorrect alignment of the vertebrae
  • More protruding bones on one side of the back when the baby/child leans forward
  • Abnormal bony protrusions palpable in the spine
  • Unevenness in hip levels

How is Congenital Scoliosis Diagnosed?

The diagnosis process in congenital scoliosis proceeds together with both physical examination and radiological imaging methods. X-ray images help to make the first diagnosis of scoliosis. Scoliosis can be seen directly on the x-ray image. However, the exact spinal damage caused by congenital scoliosis and in which region can be measured with more advanced imaging methods. At the same time, special devices that detect the degree of scoliosis can be used in the diagnostic process.

How Is Congenital Scoliosis Treated?

Existing orthopedic problems may be noticed during routine checkups of the baby, if scoliosis symptoms started at an early age. However, in some individuals, congenital scoliosis progresses more slowly. In this case, pain and posture disorders in the future may be a sign of congenital scoliosis. Early diagnosis is important in the treatment process. When diagnosed early, the progression of congenital scoliosis can be prevented by exercise, brace, and surgical procedures. In small babies, it may be necessary to wait until childhood or adolescence due to the complications of the surgical procedure. 

Congenital Scoliosis Treatment

The most effective results in congenital scoliosis are obtained with surgical intervention. Today, thanks to the developing technology and new applications in the field of orthopedics, many different methods are used in the treatment of scoliosis. Scoliosis treatment is performed in many orthopedic clinics and hospitals. The important thing in congenital scoliosis is to notice the problem early and to contact a specialist immediately. 

Kyphosis, or hunchback, is a condition in which the bones in the back region bend forward abnormally. It causes the person to stand constantly bent forward. Therefore, it can cause pain in the neck, back and waist region. If kyphosis progresses too far, the patient may also complain of shortness of breath. Due to shortness of breath and the contracted position of the body, kyphosis patients get tired more quickly. This situation can lead to aesthetic concerns as well as decrease the quality of daily life of the person. The hunchback can make an insecure and introverted first impression. In order to overcome these problems, different kyphosis treatments such as regular follow-up, exercise, corset and surgery can be performed.

What is Kyphosis?

Humpback is one of the most well-known orthopedic disorders among the population. In human anatomy, the wide part between the neck and lumbar lordosis is called "thoracic kyphosis". In a normal spine structure, kyphosis has a natural curve between 20 and 55 degrees. When it comes to hunchback, the slope can reach 75 degrees and it starts to cause discomfort. It is generally an idiopathic disorder of unknown cause. Most idiopathic kyphosis, which is not congenital, is based on posture disorders acquired during childhood.

What are the Causes of Kyphosis (Humpback)?

Kyphosis; It may occur due to structural features, birth, lifestyle and some disorders that develop with advancing age. The most common type of kyphosis is the kyphosis of unknown cause, which we call "scheuermann's kyphosis". This type of kyphosis usually occurs after childhood.

Apart from this, just like in scoliosis, hunchback may occur due to congenital reasons. One of the spine problems arising from the mother's health or the development process is humpback. While the baby is still in the womb, problems in the development of the spine may begin to form.

It is possible for someone who does not have a hunchback during infancy and adulthood to become hunchbacked over time. Especially in women, kyphosis may occur due to osteoporosis. It is known that micro-fractures in the spine, posture disorders, rheumatism, improper working style and arthritis cause humpback. 

How Is Kyphosis Treated?

Kyphosis treatment; It is a disease that is possible with observation, exercise corset and surgery. In the initial stages of humpback, the first preferred method is observation. The progress of the hump is followed in 6-month periods. If the orthopedist observes that the curvature of the spine increases rapidly, he may recommend switching to exercise and corset treatment to prevent this progression. Corset treatment, on the other hand, is a preferred treatment method in cases of humpback observed at a moderate level, generally at young ages. Since the bones have just completed their development process, the deformation can be prevented with light pressure. If the person does not want this treatment because of the appearance of the corset, regular exercise and sports are recommended. Strengthening the back, arm and waist muscles largely eliminates the humpback problem.

Surgery is the last preferred but most effective treatment for the humpback problem. Surgical intervention is essential in patients with spinal curvature greater than 75 degrees. This level of curvature not only negatively affects the appearance of the person, but also causes severe pain.

What are the Factors Affecting the Treatment of Humpback?

So, which of the humpback treatments is right for you? Is surgery necessary to prevent humpback?

The first factor we consider in the treatment of kyphosis; is the severity of the curvature. If the curvature is above 75 degrees, this is a condition that seriously affects the patient's quality of life. However, the patient's age, bone age, level of the hump and the rate of progression are other criteria that we consider when determining the treatment of humpback.

Humpback Treatment

Humpback treatment gives effective results when applied correctly. However, at this point, it is important to consult a specialist who will guide you correctly and determine the appropriate treatment for you. If you want to get rid of the humpback problem that negatively affects your daily life, you can contact us.

One of the methods used in the treatment of deformations in the spine is canal stenosis treatment. The vertebrae overlap and create tunnel appearance. This structure is called the spinal canal. Over time, the wear of the spine and its thickening in some areas can lead to canal stenosis problems. Canal Stenosis treatment to eliminate this problem helps the spine to regain its healthy structure. Canal Stenosis can cause severe pain and movement restrictions. If left untreated, complaints may increase and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. Problems due to Spinal Canal Stenosis can be confused with herniated disc problems. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of a specialist physician is important.

What is Canal Stenosis?

In order for the spine to be in a healthy structure, the spinal tunnel must be of a certain diameter. Changes in the diameter of this canal can negatively affect spinal health and cause pain. Over time, the thickening of the tissues, discs and ligaments around the spine causes the spinal canal to narrow in some areas. Narrowing of the spinal canal usually occurs due to changes associated with aging that decrease the size of the canal, including the movement of one of the vertebrae out of alignment. The most common areas are between the L2 – L5 vertebrae in the lumbar region; in the neck, it is between the C4 – C7 vertebrae.

What Causes Canal Stenosis?

Listening carefully to the patient's medical history is vital when diagnosing Canal Stenosis, because Canal Stenosis can occur with a combination of many different factors. Incorrect treatments can be performed, especially since it is confused with herniated disc diseases. The main factor causing Canal Stenosis is the excessive enlargement of the disc, ligaments, bone structure or nerves in this region. Spinal fractures, osteoporosis, arthritis, tumors and collapse of connective tissues in the back can cause Canal Stenosis. 

What are the Symptoms of Canal Stenosis?

Canal Stenosis is manifested by the pain felt in the area where the narrowing of the spine occurs. This pain is expansive. The effect of the narrowing in the neck hits the arms and the effect of narrowing in the lumbar region can hit the legs. If the patient has an arthritis problem, canal stenosis disease will cause the effect of arthritis to be felt more. Limitations of movement along with severe pain are also one of the symptoms of canal stenosis disease. The person with spinal canal stenosis disease gets tired much more quickly. His walking speed decreases and he may prefer to stay still.

How is Narrow Canal Disease Diagnosed?

The definitive diagnosis of narrow channel disease can be made by imaging techniques such as x-ray, magnetic resonance and computed tomography, as in many orthopedic problems.

What is the Treatment of Spinal Canal Stenosis?

The first method used in the treatment of spinal canal stenosis is medication therapy. Weight control is also required in order for the drugs to be effective. In overweight patients, the pressure on the spine may increase the complaints of spinal canal stenosis. In addition, physical therapy, regular exercise and local injections are other treatment methods used in spinal canal stenosis. If the diameter of the spinal canal is excessively narrowed, non-surgical treatment methods may be insufficient. In this case, it is possible to stop the narrowing and restore the healthy structure of the spine with various screws and medical apparatus.

Spinal Canal Stenosis Treatment

Spinal canal stenosis is a disease that can be prevented with early diagnosis. Early diagnosis in orthopedics is possible by taking pain into account. A simple back pain can often be a sign of serious orthopedic problems. For this reason, it is recommended to consult a specialist orthopedist whenever you feel spinal pain.

Today, many people are looking for a solution to herniated disc problems. Hernia, one of the most common orthopedic disorders can occur with a simple daily movement, or it can occur as a result of severe trauma. The determining factor in the treatment of lumbar hernia is what complaints the hernia problem causes and how it affects the daily life of the patient. Thanks to today's modern treatment methods, hernia disc disorders can be treated with different methods and permanent solutions can be obtained when the process progresses correctly. In this article, we will try to better understand the discomfort of herniated disc by answering frequently asked questions about herniated disc.

What is a herniated disc?

We hear that many people in the society complain about herniated disc. So what is lumbar hernia medically? Herniated disc; It is a disorder that occurs due to the rupture of the disc between the vertebrae and pressure on the leg nerves in advanced cases. This is the reason why one of the most important symptoms of herniated disc is leg pain. Disc rupture causes severe pain due to the intense pressure it exerts on both the waist and leg areas. These pains affect the daily life of the person negatively and reduce the quality of life. It can interfere with walking and an active lifestyle. Its effects do not go away unless it is treated. It is a disorder that can be seen at any age. However, some people are at risk due to their lifestyle and occupation.

Who is Likely to Get Herniated Disc?

Herniated disc can be seen in anyone. But now, let's study at-risk patient groups:

  • Those who have excess bodyweight and obesity problems are at risk of herniated disc. If the spine has difficulties carrying the body weight, the discs in the lumbar region can be damaged more quickly and a herniated disc may occur.
  •  A sedentary lifestyle is also known to cause herniated disc. Especially nowadays, the increase in professions involving desk work can cause the back and waist muscles to weaken and thus to deform more easily.
  • People who work mainly in manual labor are also among the high risk groups for lumbar hernia. Frequent movements such as bending, standing up and heavy lifting cause rapid deformation of the tissues in the spine.
  • In addition, harmful habits such as unhealthy diet and smoking are known to have a negative effect on muscle and bone tissue in our body. Damages arising from these habits can accelerate the formation of herniated disc.

What are the Symptoms of Herniated Disc?

The most important symptom of herniated disc is severe pain radiating from the waist to the legs. Numbness, tingling and loss of sensation may also be added to the pain. In advanced cases, complaints such as urinary incontinence, fatigue, inability to walk and impotence can also be seen. 

 What is the Treatment of Herniated Disc?

Herniated disc is a condition that can be treated with rest, physical therapy and surgery. In the early stages of the disease, rest is usually recommended. The patients are strictly prohibited:

  • Heavy lifting
  • Putting a heavy load on their shoulders
  • Reach upwards over their heads
  • Being in environments or situations that will get cold to their waist area

During the rest period, the waist should be supported even while sitting and the muscles in the spine should be used carefully.

Does Physiotherapy Treat Herniated disc?

Physical therapy is one of the most effective methods in the treatment of herniated disc. Some patients may say that the complaints continue and the pain does not go away despite physical therapy. In this case, surgery may be a better option. However, physical therapy gives very effective results in cases of mild to moderate herniated disc. When applied correctly, there is usually no need for re-treatment and the patient can continue his daily life in a healthy way.

How Is Back Herniated Disc Surgery Performed?

Many treatment techniques developed today enable us to obtain effective results from orthopedic surgeries. Thanks to the endoscopic technique used in lumbar hernia surgeries, lumbar hernia surgery can also be performed through small incisions.

Lower back pain is one of the most common problems in orthopedics and traumatology. Although it usually occurs in middle-aged and older individuals, people who have an active sports life and work with body strength may also complain of lower back pain. If left untreated, lower back pain can become uncomfortable and negatively affect daily life. In the treatment of lower back pain, whether the pain spreads to the hips and legs, and its frequency are taken into account. Different methods such as special exercises, physical therapy, rest and surgery can be a solution to lower back pain. In our article, we will give information about the causes and treatment of lower back pain. Although this information will help you identify the pain you feel, the actual diagnosis can only be made by a specialist orthopedist.

What Causes Lower Back Pain?

The complaint of lower back pain is common in most of the society, regardless of women, men, old people and children. With the increase in the frequency of this complaint and the negative effects of lower back pain on daily life, people are looking for answers to the question "What cause lower back pain?" Lower back pain may occur due to different reasons in each patient. Hereditary characteristics, lifestyle and different diseases can cause lower back pain. The most common physical factors in the diagnosis and treatment of lower back pain are:

  • Pressure on the discs, ligaments and tissues in the lumbar region as a result of being overweight.
  • Strains to the waist area due to excessive load and wrong movements
  • Nerve root compressions and slipped discs in the lumbar region
  • Spinal Canal Stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal in the lumbar region)
  • Lumbar herniated disc
  • Pregnancy
  • Arthritis (Faset syndrome)
  • Back tissue damage caused by the wrong choice of shoes and excessive sports
  • Working for a long time and in a wrong posture

What Causes Pain on One Side of the Waist?

Lower back pain manifests itself differently in each disease. For this reason, it is necessary to listen to the patient’s medical history thoroughly at the stage of diagnosis. Although imaging methods help to confirm the diagnosis, the main determinant is often the patient’s medical history and a detailed doctor’s examination. Pain in one side of the waist may be an indication of arthritis. At the same time, severe pain can be seen on one side of the back in diseases such as scoliosis where the spine puts more pressure on one side. For a correct diagnosis, you should accurately describe the pain you are experiencing to your doctor and you should not consider any detail unimportant.

What Causes Back Pain While Walking?

When lower back pain happens is also important in the diagnosis process. In the case of arthritis in the lower back, lower back pain generally increases as you stay still. The pain felt while walking is a pain characterized by a herniated disc. However, it is still necessary to confirm the diagnosis with imaging methods for definitive diagnosis and treatment.

How Is Lower Back Pain Treated?

Lower back pain treatment depends on the type and severity of the disease diagnosed. In general, the first choice is in favor of exercise and physical therapy. A sedentary lifestyle is the source of many orthopedic problems, especially in individuals between the ages of 35 and 50. In order to eliminate this situation, patients should switch to a lifestyle that includes regular sports and healthy eating routines. Office workers can benefit from daily, simple back and back stretching exercises that can be done while sitting.

In addition, hot and cold compresses are also effective in reducing complaints at the time of pain. In cases where the damage to the lower back occurs due to congenital reasons or accidents, surgical methods can be performed. Today, the use of arthroscopic surgery technique in lower back problems has increased and the surgical treatment process has become much easier.

How Should Exercises Be Used in the Treatment of Lower Back Pain?

Each exercise used in the treatment of lower back pain is primarily evaluated in line with the patient’s age, gender, and lifestyle and bone age and should be personalized. Not every patient can be expected to perform every exercise movement perfectly. For this reason, it will be beneficial for your skeletal health to consult an orthopedic specialist before doing exercises at home.

Osteoarthritis in the lower back is a painful condition, also called facet syndrome in medicine. Facet joints are the joints that hold the spine together. It allows the spine to move freely forward and backward. This area may weaken over time or osteoarthritis may begin as a result of trauma. This can cause pain that reduces the patient's quality of life. Although it is a disease that can occur in young people during accidents and sports, it is a disease that we generally observe in middle-aged and older patients. The treatment is relatively easier than herniated disc and other joint disorders. But it is a difficult disease to diagnose. Pain in the lumbar region is often confused with herniated disc.

What is Facet Syndrome?

Osteoarthritis in the lower back is a disease that occurs due to age, lifestyle, orthopedic damage and trauma. Constant stress on the spine can lead to facet syndrome. It is a discomfort that manifests itself with pain in the lumbar region. The difference from lumbar hernia is that the pain remains constant in the lumbar region and does not have an invasive character.

What Causes Facet Syndrome (Spondylosis)?

The regions where osteoarthritis is most common in the spine are the lumbar and neck region. Since the spine is more mobile in these regions, it can be damaged more easily. Especially in people who have a sedentary lifestyle, wear on the bone tissue begins with aging. Factors that cause osteoarthritis in the lumbar area can be listed as:

  • Aging
  • Rheumatic diseases
  • Premature aging of bones
  • Working using physical strength for a long time
  • Heavy lifting
  • Uncontrolled exercise
  • Wrong posture

What are Osteoarthritis Symptoms in the Lower Back?

Lower back pain cases first bring to mind herniated disc. When diagnosing herniated disc, it is important that the pain spreads to the leg and hip. If the pain does not spread to the leg and hip area, then it is necessary to suspect problems in the lumbar joint. In facet syndrome, the sensation of pain increases with inactivity. Lumbar hernia pain is generally relieved by rest and increased by movement. In the case of osteoarthritis in the lumbar region, inactivity increases the severity of the pain. During sleep, the pain may increase and wake patients up from sleep. Patients notice that the pain decreases as they pull their feet towards the waist. The most obvious moment of pain is in the morning. In the case of lower back arthritis, it is difficult to get out of bed in the morning. During the day, as the movement increases, the pain decreases and may recur in the evening.

What is the Best Treatment Method for Lower Back Osteoarthritis?

Back arthritis is a condition that can be treated without surgery. Special exercises and radiofrequency treatments that will remove arthritis in the lower back are very effective methods. Treatment of facet syndrome with exercise is possible at any age. The movements are such that both young and old can do it. Patients also notice a significant reduction in pain with exercise. However, sometimes older individuals may delay or ignore exercise. In this case, radiofrequency treatments can be very effective. After radiofrequency treatment, which is a non-surgical and easy procedure, the pain decreases and the patients can continue their daily life without any problems.

What is Facet Joint Denervation?

Denervation is a special treatment method used in the problem of lower back arthritis. It is a treatment aimed at denervating the nerves in the lumbar joint. It is done with a radiofrequency device. The heat emitted from the radiofrequency device desensitizes the joint and relieves the pain. Since there is no surgical incision, the patient can immediately return to his daily life on the same day. The maximum effects are seen in about 3 – 4 weeks.